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Essay on the law of life

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Law of Life (2/2) by Jack London


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Essay on the law of life

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apophenia blog essay Citation: boyd, danah. 2007. Viewing American class divisions through Facebook and MySpace . Apophenia Blog Essay. June 24 . Essay? http://www.danah.org/papers/essays/ClassDivisions.html. (If you have comments, please add them to write a college level thesis statement the related entry on my blog. Thank you.) (I have also written a response to the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by on the life, this essay.) (Leveraging ethnographic data, I have documented these dynamics in more detail in know my dissertation: Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. See Chapter Five.) (I take up the racist language that teens use to discuss MySpace and Facebook in law of White Flight in Networked Publics? How Race and Class Shaped American Teen Engagement with MySpace and Facebook.

To be published in critical analysis visual arts Digital Race Anthology, edited by essay on the law of life, Peter Chow-White and Lisa Nakamura.) Over the last six months, I've noticed an dont, increasing number of press articles about essay law of life how high school teens are leaving MySpace for Facebook. That's only partially true. A Toddler? There is indeed a change taking place, but it's not a shift so much as a fragmentation. Until recently, American teenagers were flocking to MySpace. The picture is now being blurred. Some teens are flocking to MySpace. And some teens are flocking to Facebook. Who goes where gets kinda sticky. Essay On The? probably because it seems to primarily have to synthesise list do with socio-economic class. I want to take a moment to make a meta point here. I have been traipsing through the country talking to teens and I've been seeing this transition for the past 6-9 months but I'm having a hard time putting into words. Americans aren't so good at talking about class and essay life, I'm definitely feeling that discomfort.

It's sticky, it's uncomfortable, and to top it off, we don't have the language for marking class in a meaningful way. And Doubting Game? So this piece is intentionally descriptive, but in being so, it's also hugely problematic. I don't have the language to get at essay on the life what I want to say, but I decided it needed to be said anyhow. I wish I could just put numbers in front of observing it all and be done with it, but instead, I'm going to face the law of stickiness and see if I can get my thoughts across. Hopefully it works.

For the academics reading this, I want to highlight that this is not an academic article. It is not trying to be. It is based on my observations in the field, but I'm not trying to situate or theorize what is going on. I've chosen terms meant to convey impressions, but I know that they are not precise uses of dartmouth mba essay these terms. Hopefully, one day, I can get the essay on the life words together to actually write an synthesise list, academic article about this topic, but I felt as though this is too important of an essay on the law of, issue to sit on while I find the words.

So I wrote it knowing that it would piss many off. The academic side of me feels extremely guilty about this; the activist side of me finds it too critical to game go unacknowledged. Essay Law Of Life? Enter the competition. When MySpace launched in essays visual arts 2003, it was primarily used by 20/30-somethings (just like Friendster before it). The bands began populating the essay life site by early 2004 and throughout 2004, the critical essays arts average age slowly declined. It wasn't until late 2004 that teens really started appearing en masse on MySpace and 2005 was the essay on the life year that MySpace became the in thing for teens. Facebook launched in 2004 as a Harvard-only site. It slowly expanded to welcome people with .edu accounts from a variety of different universities. In mid-2005, Facebook opened its doors to high school students, but it wasn't that easy to get an write level thesis, account because you needed to be invited. As a result, those who were in college tended to invite those high school students that they liked. Essay On The Law Of? Facebook was strongly framed as the dont know do my cool thing that college students did.

So, if you want to essay on the life go to college (and particularly a top college), you wanted to get on Facebook badly. Even before high school networks were possible, the moment seniors were accepted to a college, they started hounding the college sysadmins for their .edu account. The message was clear: college was about Facebook. For all of know dissertation 2005 and most of 2006, MySpace was the cool thing for high school teens and Facebook was the cool thing for college students. Essay On The? This is not to say that MySpace was solely high school or Facebook solely college, but there was a dominating age division that played out in the cultural sphere. When Facebook opened to a toddler everyone last September, it became relatively easy for essay on the law of any high school student to synthesise list join (and then they simply had to get permission to join their high school network). This meant that many more high school teens did join, much to the chagrin and life, horror of college students who had already begun writing about a toddler their lack of interest in having HS students on their site. Still, even with the rise of high school students, Facebook was framed as being about college. This was what was in the press. This was what college students said. Facebook is what the law of college kids did.

Not surprisingly, college-bound high schoolers desperately wanted in. Game? In addition to the college framing, the press coverage of life MySpace as dangerous and sketchy alienated good kids. Facebook seemed to provide an ideal alternative. Parents weren't nearly as terrified of Facebook because it seemed safe thanks to the network-driven structure. Critical Essays? (Of course, I've seen more half-naked, drink-carrying high school students on Facebook than on on the MySpace, but we won't go there.) As this past school year progressed, the division around usage became clearer. In trying to Believing and Doubting look at it, I realized that it was primarily about class. In sociology, Nalini Kotamraju has argued that constructing arguments around class is extremely difficult in the United States. Terms like working class and middle class and upper class get all muddled quickly. She argues that class divisions in the United States have more to do with lifestyle and social stratification than with income.

In other words, all of my anti-capitalist college friends who work in cafes and read Engels are not working class just because they make $14K a year and have no benefits. Class divisions in the United States have more to do with social networks (the real ones, not FB/MS), social capital, cultural capital, and attitudes than income. Not surprisingly, other demographics typically discussed in class terms are also a part of this lifestyle division. Social networks are strongly connected to geography, race, and religion; these are also huge factors in essay on the lifestyle divisions and thus class. I'm not doing justice to Believing game her arguments but it makes sense. Essay On The Law Of Life? My friends who are making $14K in cafes are not of the know do my dissertation same class as the immigrant janitor in on the life Oakland just because the share the same income bracket. Their lives are quite different. How To A College Thesis? Unfortunately, with this framing, there aren't really good labels to demarcate the essay on the life class divisions that do exist. Essay? For this reason, I will attempt to delineate what we see on social network sites in on the stereotypical, descriptive terms meant to evoke an image. The goodie two shoes, jocks, athletes, or other good kids are now going to Facebook. These kids tend to come from families who emphasize education and going to college.

They are part of what we'd call hegemonic society. Critical Analysis Essays Arts? They are primarily white, but not exclusively. They are in honors classes, looking forward to the prom, and live in a world dictated by after school activities. Essay Life? MySpace is still home for Latino/Hispanic teens, immigrant teens, burnouts, alternative kids, art fags, punks, emos, goths, gangstas, queer kids, and other kids who didn't play into the dominant high school popularity paradigm. These are kids whose parents didn't go to college, who are expected to get a job when they finish high school. Critical? These are the teens who plan to go into the military immediately after schools.

Teens who are really into music or in a band are also on MySpace. MySpace has most of the kids who are socially ostracized at essay life school because they are geeks, freaks, or queers. In order to demarcate these two groups, let's call the first group of dartmouth teens hegemonic teens and the second group subaltern teens. (Yes, I know that these words have academic and political valence. I couldn't find a good set of terms so feel free to suggest alternate labels.) These terms are sloppy at best because the division isn't clear, but it should at essay law of least give us terms with which to talk about the two groups. The division is cleanest in communities where the predator panic hit before MySpace became popular.

In much of the midwest, teens heard about Facebook and MySpace at dont dissertation the same time. They were told that MySpace was bad while Facebook was key for college students seeking to on the law of make friends at college. I go into schools where the school is split between the Facebook users and the MySpace users. On the coasts and in big cities, things are more murky than elsewhere. MySpace became popular through the write level thesis bands and on the life, fans dynamic before the predator panic kicked in. Its popularity on the coasts and in the cities predated Facebook's launch in high schools. Many hegemonic teens are still using MySpace because of their connections to participants who joined in the early days, yet they too are switching and mba essay, tend to maintain accounts on on the law of life both. For the hegemonic teens in the midwest, there wasn't a MySpace to switch from so the switch is happening much faster. Do My Dissertation? None of the teens are really switching from Facebook to MySpace, although there are some hegemonic teens who choose to check out MySpace to see what happens there even though their friends are mostly on Facebook. Most teens who exclusively use Facebook are familiar with and have an opinion about MySpace. These teens are very aware of MySpace and they often have a negative opinion about it.

They see it as gaudy, immature, and so middle school. They prefer the essay law of clean look of Facebook, noting that it is more mature and do my dissertation, that MySpace is so lame. What hegemonic teens call gaudy can also be labeled as glitzy or bling or fly (or what my generation would call phat) by subaltern teens. Terms like bling come out of hip-hop culture where showy, sparkly, brash visual displays are acceptable and valued. The look and feel of MySpace resonates far better with subaltern communities than it does with the upwardly mobile hegemonic teens. Essay On The Law Of Life? This is dont know even clear in essay law of life the blogosphere where people talk about how gauche MySpace is while commending Facebook on its aesthetics. I'm sure that a visual analyst would be able to explain how classed aesthetics are, but aesthetics are more than simply the eye of the beholder - they are culturally narrated and replicated. That clean or modern look of Facebook is akin to West Elm or Pottery Barn or any poshy Scandinavian design house (that I admit I'm drawn to) while the more flashy look of MySpace resembles the Las Vegas imagery that attracts millions every year. I suspect that lifestyles have aesthetic values and that these are being reproduced on MySpace and Facebook. Synthesise List? I should note here that aesthetics do divide MySpace users.

The look and feel that is acceptable amongst average Latino users is quite different from what you see the subculturally-identified outcasts using. Amongst the essay law of emo teens, there's a push for simple black/white/grey backgrounds and simplistic layouts. While I'm using the term subaltern teens to lump together non-hegemonic teens, the lifestyle divisions amongst the subalterns are quite visible on MySpace through the mba essay aesthetic choices of the essay law of backgrounds. The aesthetics issue is also one of the synthesise list forces that drives some longer-term users away from MySpace. While teens on Facebook all know about MySpace, not all MySpace users have heard of Facebook.

In particular, subaltern teens who go to school exclusively with other subaltern teens are not likely to have heard of it. Subaltern teens who go to more mixed-class schools see Facebook as what the good kids do or what the preps do. They have various labels for essay on the these hegemonic teens but they know the division, even if they don't have words for it. Likewise, in thesis these types of schools, the hegemonic teens see MySpace as where the bad kids go. Good and bad seem to be the dominant language used to on the divide hegemonic and subaltern teens in mixed-class environments. At the synthesise list same time, most schools aren't actually that mixed. To a certain degree, the lack of familiarity amongst certain subaltern kids is not surprising. Teens from law of, poorer backgrounds who are on MySpace are less likely to know people who go to how to level thesis universities. They are more likely to know people who are older than them, but most of their older friends, cousins, and co-workers are on MySpace. It's the cool working class thing and it's the dominant SNS at community colleges.

These teens are more likely to be interested in on the activities like shows and clubs and they find out observing about them through MySpace. The subaltern teens who are better identified as outsiders in a hegemonic community tend to be very aware of Facebook. Their choice to use MySpace instead of Facebook is a rejection of the law of hegemonic values (and a lack of desire to hang out with the preps and do my, jocks even online). Class divisions in military use. Essay Life? A month ago, the military banned MySpace but not Facebook. This was a very interesting move because the critical division in the military reflects the division in high schools. Soldiers are on MySpace; officers are on essay on the Facebook. Facebook is extremely popular in the military, but it's not the SNS of choice for 18-year old soldiers, a group that is primarily from poorer, less educated communities. They are using MySpace. The officers, many of synthesise list whom have already received college training, are using Facebook.

The military ban appears to replicate the class divisions that exist throughout the military. I can't help but wonder if the reason for this goes beyond the purported concerns that those in essay on the life the military are leaking information or spending too much time online or soaking up too much bandwidth with their MySpace usage. MySpace is the primary way that young soldiers communicate with their peers. When I first started tracking soldiers' MySpace profiles, I had to take a long deep breath. Many of them were extremely pro-war, pro-guns, anti-Arab, anti-Muslim, pro-killing, and xenophobic as hell. Over the synthesise list last year, I've watched more and more profiles emerge from soldiers who aren't quite sure what they are doing in Iraq. I don't have the data to confirm whether or not a significant shift has occurred but it was one of those observations that just made me think. And then the ban happened.

I can't help but wonder if part of the essay on the life goal is to cut off communication between current soldiers and dartmouth, the group that the military hopes to recruit. Many young soldiers' profiles aren't public so it's not about making a bad public impression. That said, young soldiers tend to have reasonably large networks because they tend to accept friend requests of anyone that they knew back home which means that they're connecting to almost everyone from their high school. On The? Many of these familiar strangers write comments supporting them. But what happens if the soldiers start to question why they're in Iraq? And if this is witnessed by do my dissertation, high school students from working class communities who the Army intends to recruit? Thoughts and meta thoughts. I have been reticent about writing about this dynamic even though I've been tracking it for on the law of a good six months now. I don't have the language for what I'm seeing and I'm concerned about how it's going to be interpreted. I can just see the logic: if society's good kids are going to dont do my Facebook and the bad kids are going to MySpace, clearly MySpace is the devil, right? ::shudder:: It's so not that easy.

Given a lack of language for talking about essay on the life this, my choice of hegemonic and subaltern was intended to mba essay at least insinuate a different way of looking at this split. The division around MySpace and Facebook is on the life just another way in which technology is mirroring societal values. Embedded in that is critical visual arts a challenge to a lot of our assumptions about who does what. The good kids are doing more bad things than we are willing to acknowledge (because they're the pride and joy of upwardly mobile parents). And, guess what? They're doing those same bad things online and offline. At the same time, the language and on the life, style of the bad kids offends most upwardly mobile adults. We see this offline as well. I've always been fascinated watching adults walk to a toddler essay the other side of the street when a group of black kids sporting hip-hop style approach. The aesthetics alone offend and most privileged folks project the worst ideas onto essay law of life any who don that style.

When I see a divide like this, I worry because it reproduced the idea that the good kids are good and that Facebook participation is critical visual good. Over ten years ago, PBS Frontline put out a video called The Lost Children of Rockdale County. Essay On The Law Of Life? The film certainly has its issues but it does a brilliant job of level thesis statement capturing how, given complete boredom and a desire for validation, many of the good kids will engage in some of the most shocking behaviors. and their parents are typically unaware. By and large, I've found that parents try to essay law of curtail such activities by restricting youth even more. This doesn't stop the desire for attention and thus the behaviors continue, but they get pushed further underground and parents become less in-touch with their good kids. While I think it's important to thesis statement acknowledge that some of the good kids aren't that good, I don't want to imply that the inverse is true. Many of essay on the life them are. But many of the subaltern teens that I talk with have their heads on much tighter than the critical analysis essays hegemonic teens. The hegemonic teens do know how to on the life put on synthesise list a show for most adults (making it more fun for me to interview them and try to work through the walls that they initially offer me). As a society, we have strong class divisions and we project these values onto our kids.

MySpace and Facebook seem to on the life be showcasing this division quite well. My hope in writing this out is to know point out essay law of that many of our assumptions are problematic and the internet often reinforces our views instead of challenging them. People often ask me if I'm worried about teens today. The answer is yes, but it's not because of social network sites. With the hegemonic teens, I'm very worried about the dont know do my dissertation stress that they're under, the lack of mobility and healthy opportunities for play and socialization, and the hyper-scheduling and surveillance. I'm worried about their unrealistic expectations for becoming rich and law of life, famous, their lack of critical analysis essays visual work ethic after being pampered for essay law of life so long, and the lack of opportunities that many of them have to even be economically stable let alone better off than their parents. I'm worried about how locking teens indoors coupled with a fast food/junk food advertising machine has resulted in Believing and Doubting game a decrease in health levels across the board which will just get messy as they are increasingly unable to afford health insurance. When it comes to ostracized teens, I'm worried about the reasons why society has ostracized them and how they will react to ongoing criticism from hegemonic peers. I cringe every time I hear of another Columbine, another Virgina Tech, another site of horror when an outcast teen lashes back at essay the hegemonic values of a college level statement society.

I worry about the lack of on the law of life opportunities available to poor teens from write a college statement, uneducated backgrounds. Essay? I'm worried about how Wal-Mart Nation has destroyed many of the opportunities for meaningful working class labor as these youth enter the synthesise list workforce. I'm worried about what a prolonged war will mean for them. I'm worried about on the law of how they've been told that to succeed, they must be a famous musician or sports player. I'm worried about how gangs provide the only meaningful sense of community that many of analysis essays these teens will ever know. Given the state of what I see in all sorts of neighborhoods, I'm amazed at how well teens are coping and essay on the life, I think that technology has a lot to do with that. Teens are using social network sites to know do my dissertation build community and connect with their peers. They are creating publics for essay on the law of life socialization.

And through it, they are showcasing all of the good, bad, and ugly of today's teen life. Much of it isn't pretty, but it ain't pretty offline either. Still, it makes my heart warm when I see something creative or engaged or reflective. There is good out there too. It breaks my heart to watch a class divide play out in the technology. I shouldn't be surprised - when orkut grew popular in India, the caste system was formalized within the system by the users. But there's something so strange about watching a generation slice themselves in two based on class divisions or lifestyles or whatever you want to call these socio-structural divisions. In the 70s, Paul Willis analyzed British working class youth and he wrote a book called Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. He argued that working class teens will reject hegemonic values because it's the write level statement only way to continue to essay law of life be a part of the analysis arts community that they live in. In other words, if you don't know that you will succeed if you make a run at jumping class, don't bother - you'll lose all of your friends and community in on the the process. His analysis has such strong resonance in American society today.

I just wish I knew how to fix it. I clearly don't have the language to comfortably talk about what's going on, but I think that this issue is important and needs to be considered. I feel as though the implications are huge. Marketers have already figured this out - they know who to dont do my dissertation market to where. On The Law Of Life? Policy creators have figured this out - they know how to observing control different populations based on on the law of where they are networking. Have social workers figured it out? Or educators? What does it mean that our culture of fear has further divided a generation?

What does it mean that, in a society where we can't talk about class, we can see it play out online? And what does it mean in a digital world where no one's supposed to know you're a dog, we can guess your class background based on dont know do my the tools you use? Anyhow, I don't know where to go with this, but I wanted to law of life get it out there. So here it is. MySpace and Facebook are new representations of the class divide in American youth. Le sigh. (I have also written a response to the critiques of this essay.

This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.) For those unfamiliar with my work, let me provide a bit of methodological background. I have been engaged in ethnographic research on social network sites since February 2003 when I began studying the practices that emerged on dartmouth Friendster. I followed the launch and on the law of, early adoption of dartmouth mba essay numerous social network sites, including Tribe.net, LinkedIn, Flickr, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, Dodgeball, and Orkut. In late 2004, I decided to move away from studying social network sites to studying youth culture just in time for youth to flock to MySpace. The practice of 'ethnography' is essay on the hard to describe in a bounded form, but ethnography is basically about living and breathing a particular culture, its practices, and its individuals. There are some countables. For example, I have analyzed over 10,000 MySpace profiles, clocked over 2000 hours surfing and synthesise list, observing what happens on MySpace, and on the life, formally interviewed 90 teens in 7 states with a variety of different backgrounds and dartmouth, demographics.

But that's only the tip of the iceberg. I ride buses to essay on the observe teens; I hang out at fast food joints and malls. Synthesise List? I talk to parents, teachers, marketers, politicians, pastors, and essay life, technology creators. I read, I observe, I document. One of the biggest problems with studying youth culture is essay that it's a moving target, constantly shifting based on a variety of life social and cultural forces. While I had been keeping an eye on Facebook simply because of my long-term interest in social network sites, I had to really start taking it seriously in the fall of 2006 when teens started telling me about how they were leaving MySpace to join Facebook or joining Facebook as their first social network site. While social network sites are in vogue, not everyone uses them. When PEW collected data in December 2005, it found that 55% of American teens 12-17 admitted to having a SNS profile in front of their parents. 70% of girls 15-17. These numbers are low, but we don't know how low.

In the field, I have found that everyone knows about them and has an opinion of them. My experience has been that 70-80% of teens have a profile, but they may not do anything with their account other than private messages (i.e. glorified email). The percentage who are truly active is more like 50. Often, teens did not create their own profile, but they're perfectly OK with having a profile created by a friend. My research is intentionally American-centric, but it is not coastal centric. I have done formal interviews in California, Washington, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts. When I do this, I do not capture parents' income but I do get parents' education level and job. In each of these communities, I have spent time roaming the streets and Believing, talking informally with people of all ages. I have analyzed profiles from on the law of, all 50 states (and DC and Puerto Rico).

I use the high school data from these profiles and juxtapose them with federal information on high school voucher numbers to get a sense of the SES of the school. I have spent time in game cities, suburbs, small towns, and some rural regions. There are weaknesses to my data collection. On The Law Of? I have spent too little time in rural environments and Believing and Doubting, too little time in the deep south. How I find teens to essay on the law of formally interview varies based on dartmouth mba essay region, but it is not completely random.

In each region, I am only getting a slice of what takes place, but collectively, it shows amazing variety. The MySpace profiles that I analyze are random. I do not have access to Facebook profiles, although I have spent an excessive amount of time browsing high schools to see what kind of numbers show up, even if I can't see the actual profiles. Again, none of this is essay on the life perfect, but it helps me paint a qualitative portrait of what's going on. Write Level Thesis? (I have also written a response to essay law of the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.)

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Aspartic acid racemization rate in essay law of, narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in analysis essays arts, tusks. Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by essay law of counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is observing a toddler essay, difficult to use on narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of on the this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks ( n =9). Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression ( r 2 =0.98) based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation ( r 2 between 0.88 and how to a college level statement 0.98). The two estimated 2 k Asp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2 k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 SE.

The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the on the life, ( d/l ) 0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of dartmouth narwhals, but also recommend the collection of essay on the law of life tusks and write level statement eyes of law of narwhals for dartmouth mba essay further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and on the life 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study. The tusk of the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) was previously thought to be the long horn of a mythical creature: the mba essay, unicorn. It was mysteriously beautiful and essay life its horn was said to neutralize poison. Critical Analysis Arts? The royal throne of Denmark (1662) was made of 15 “unicorn horns”, which were of tremendous value. Back then, as today, narwhals were hunted for their valuable tusks. Life? Today, only Inuit in Believing, Greenland and Canada are allowed to hunt narwhals, and the hunt is managed in both countries (NAMMCO 2009 NAMMCO (North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission). 2009 . Essay Life? Annual report 2009. TromsoNorway : North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission . [Google Scholar] ). Ongoing studies of migration patterns (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 2003 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Dietz R . Laidre K.L . Richard P . Orr J . Schmidt H.C . The migratory behaviour of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2003 ; 81: 1298 – 1305 . Essays Visual Arts? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), population sizes (Heide-Jorgensen et al.

2010 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Laidre K.L . Burt M.L . Borchers D.L . Marques T.A . Essay On The Life? Hansen R.G . Rasmussen M . Fossette S . Abundance of essay narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) on the hunting grounds in Greenland . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1135 – 1151 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Richard et al. 2010 Richard P.R . Laake J.L . Life? Hobbs R.C . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Asselin N.C . Cleator H . Baffin Bay narwhal distribution and essays numbers: aerial surveys in the Canadian High Arctic, 2002–04 . Arctic. 2010 ; 63: 85 – 99 . Essay On The Law Of Life? [Google Scholar] ) and life history (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Synthesise List? Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. Law Of? 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Mba Essay? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) of essay life narwhals contribute to understanding the critical analysis essays visual, underlying population dynamics of this exploited species (Reeves Heide-Jorgensen 1994 Reeves R.R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Commercial aspects of the exploitation of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) in Greenland, with emphasis on tusk exports . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 119 – 134 . [Google Scholar] ). Sustainable harvest levels are usually calculated from law of, population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on reliable age distributions, are vital (Kingsley 1989 Kingsley M . Population dynamics of the narwhal Monodon monoceros : an initial assessment (Odontoceti: Monodontidae) . Journal of Zoology. 1989 ; 219: 201 – 208 . How To A College Thesis Statement? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Estimation of life history parameters for narwhals has been hindered by the lack of essay on the law of a reliable age estimation technique. Without such a technique, it is difficult to parameterize rates of body growth, age at sexual maturity, longevity and survival rates of the mba essay, whales.

Traditionally, ages of marine mammals have been estimated by counting dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) in teeth, usually consisting of an opaque and essay on the life a translucent layer deposited annually (Dietz et al. 1991 Dietz R . How To Write A College Thesis? Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Harkonen T . Teilmann J . Valentin N . Age determination of European harbour seals Phoca vitulina L . Essay On The? Sarsia. Observing A Toddler? 1991 ; 76: 17 – 21 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Law Of Life? Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of critical analysis arts white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ; Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Essay Law Of? Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Critical Analysis Visual Arts? Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Essay On The Law Of? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Game? Age determination in on the life, belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for observing a toddler validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Narwhals are born with two maxillary, elongated teeth embedded in the upper jaw. The left tooth erupts through the lip in males, and as the whale grows older this becomes a long, spiralled tusk (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Essay Life? Handbook of marine mammals.

Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Normally, the right tooth remains inside the maxilla in males. In females, both teeth usually stay embedded in the maxillae. Anomalies such as females with tusks or males without a tusk or with two tusks are reported in the literature but occur infrequently in narwhal populations (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Analysis Essays Visual? Handbook of marine mammals. Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Besides being expensive to purchase and on the difficult to prepare for counting GLGs, tusks almost exclusively represent only the male part of the population. Attempts have been made to and Doubting, estimate age by counting GLGs in essay law of, embedded teeth. And Doubting? However, due to occlusion of the pulp cavity and law of thereby cessation of deposition of growth layers, only a minimum estimate of age can be obtained from these teeth for adults; reliable estimates can be obtained only for young individuals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue.

1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . Synthesise List? [Google Scholar] ). A different method is needed to essay law of, obtain age estimates for the mature component of the narwhal population, including both males and females. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in several age estimation studies of cetaceans (Nerini 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ; George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . A Toddler Essay? Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of essay life Zoology. Believing? 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . [Google Scholar] ; Olsen Sunde 2002 Olsen E . Sunde J . Age determination of minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) using the essay law of, aspartic acid racemization technique . Sarsia. Dartmouth Mba Essay? 2002 ; 87: 1 – 8 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). This technique relies on the fact that in metabolically inactive tissues, the l -form of aspartic acid converts to the d -form at a constant rate over time, a process known as racemization (Masters et al. 1977 Masters P.M . Bada J.L . Zigler J.S . Aspartic acid racemization in the human lens during ageing and in cataract formation . Nature.

1977 ; 268: 71 – 73 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Essay Law Of Life? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Observing? The age of an individual can be estimated when the rate of racemization, the initial ( d/l ) 0 value for the species and the individual d/l ratio are known. On The Law Of? The most stable proteins of the body are found in teeth and eye lens nuclei, and that is dartmouth mba essay, why these tissues are often used in AAR age estimation studies (Bada et al. 1980 Bada J.L . Brown S . Masters P.M . Age determination of marine mammals based on aspartic acid racemization in the teeth and lens nucleus . On The? Report of the dont do my dissertation, International Whaling Commission Special Issue. Essay On The Life? 1980 ; 3: 113 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ). Believing And Doubting Game? Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Essay On The Life? Mitchell E . Kemper B . Dartmouth Mba Essay? Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature. 1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Essay On The Law Of? Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Synthesise List? Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used AAR to estimate ages of narwhals from teeth and eye lens nuclei. Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . On The Law Of Life? Nature.

1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used the human racemization rate in teeth, whereas Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by dartmouth mba essay aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . On The? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated a rate based on a combination of narwhal and how to write thesis fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) data. The rate of racemization has been shown to differ among species, mainly driven by core body temperature (Garde 2011 Garde E . 2011 . Past and on the law of life present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros . PhD thesis, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen . [Google Scholar] ; Rosa et al. 2012 Rosa C , Zeh J , George J.C , Botta O , Zauscher M , Bada J . O'Hara, T.M . 2012 . Age estimates based on aspartic acid racemization for game bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) harvested in 1998–2000 and the relationship between racemization rate and body temperature . Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). It is therefore important to estimate a specific racemization rate for the narwhal based directly on narwhal data. The purpose of on the law of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for the narwhal by regression of GLGs in tusks against aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. We anticipate that this rate will be useful in future large-scale studies of life history and population dynamics of narwhal populations. Tusks and Believing game both matching eyes from on the law of, 11 narwhals were purchased from the Inuit hunt in north-west and East Greenland in the period September 2006–November 2010 (Table 1). Eye samples from two whales (ID nos. And Doubting Game? 4080 and 4084) were discarded as it was uncertain whether the tusk and essay on the law of life eyes came from the how to write level statement, same individual. Essay On The? Eight of the remaining nine whales were males. We believe the ninth whale (ID no.

4075) was a female: the Inuit hunter that caught this individual also provided ovaries together with the tusk and eyes. Body lengths of the whales ranged from Believing and Doubting game, 306 to essay law of life, 491 cm (Table 1). Aspartic acid racemization rate in mba essay, narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to on the law of life, the total length of the tusks in the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in observing, tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to GLG.

Tusk preparation and counting of dentinal GLGs. Total tusk length, external tusk length (portion protruding from the melon of the on the law of, whale), tusk mass, tusk diameter at the melon front, total length of the pulp cavity and diameter of the dont do my dissertation, pulp cavity at the melon front were measured (Table 1). Some tusks were purchased while still embedded in law of life, the skull, and these were removed after gentle maceration of the skull in 38°C water for five days. Each tusk was cut into critical two longitudinal sections using a jigsaw (Fig. 1). The surfaces were polished using sheets of essay very fine sandpaper, and the tusks were placed in synthesise list, a wooden container lined with plastic where they were soaked in 12% acetic acid for four–five days, after which they were rinsed with water and essay on the life left to dry for one day. This procedure made individual GLGs more visible by revealing troughs and ridges, thereby facilitating counting. Growth layers were counted, and their individual widths were measured with a digital micrometer in order to estimate a standard width of GLG that might help in identifying GLGs and rejecting secondary lines. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of know do my growth layers in tusks. Fig.

1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of essay narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in observing essay, the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows). Fig. 1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows).

It was noted whether the neonatal line, the tip and the root of the proximal part of the tusk (the part originally located within the head of the whale) were present (Fig. 1a, b). A single, experienced tooth-reader trained in reading beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) and on the law of life narwhal teeth (not tusks) was chosen to read the narwhal tusks as less-experienced tooth-readers of harp seal ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ) teeth have been shown to be less accurate and more negatively biased (Garde et al. Essay? 2010 Garde E . Essay On The Life? Frie A.K . Dunshea G . Hansen S.H . Kovacs K.M . Lydersen C . Harp seal ageing techniques—teeth, aspartic acid racemization, and telomere sequence analysis . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1365 – 1374 . How To Write Level Thesis? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Frie et al. 2011 Frie A.K . Fagerheim K . Hammill M.O . Kapel F.O . Lockyer C . Stenson G.B . Rosing-Asvid A . Svetochev V . On The Life? Error patterns in age estimation of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ): results from a transatlantic, image-based, blind-reading experiment using known-age teeth . ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2011 ; 68: 1942 – 1953 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . A Toddler? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). GLGs were counted on both sides of each of the longitudinal sections, and each GLG was marked with a pencil for bookkeeping and to check for consistency in essay law of life, their classification. GLGs of each of the dont know dissertation, longitudinal sections were read several times, and consistent readings with the essay on the, most GLGs were accepted as the best estimates.

This was done to diminish the dartmouth mba essay, risk of un-counted GLGs due to uneven sectioning of the tusks. One GLG consisting of a small dense dark layer and essay on the a wide paler layer (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ) was assumed to represent one year in the whale's life, as shown for the closely related beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . How To Write Thesis Statement? Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Essay? Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). And Doubting? Often the beginning of a GLG was marked with a node in the cementum; in cases where the on the law of, GLGs were less discernible, this node could be used as guidance for determining the start of the and Doubting, GLGs (Fig. 1c). There was also some layering in on the, the cementum, but the layers were less easy to count and the cementum appeared to analysis visual, have far fewer GLGs than the more protected dentine. Secondary lines were frequently present, and essay law of care had to be taken to make consistent readings of standard width GLGs (Fig. 1c).

Growth of the narwhal tusk is shown as a plot of tusk length (cm) versus GLGs for each of the 11 narwhal tusks used in this study. One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of growth. Eye dissection and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Eyes were frozen at ?20°C upon collection. A Toddler Essay? In the laboratory, eye lenses were dissected out of the eyes. The lens layers surrounding the nucleus were thoroughly removed, like layers of an onion, leaving only the essay on the law of life, nucleus for further analysis (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Observing A Toddler? Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). One eye, rather than both eyes, from each whale was analysed, as no significant difference between eyes from the essay, same individual narwhal were found in a previous study (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from dartmouth, West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Essay On The Law Of? Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Hydrolysis of samples and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed following the procedures of Zhao Bada ( 1995 Zhao M . Bada J.L . Determination of ?-dialkylamino acids and their enantiomers in geological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with a chiral adduct of Believing o-phthaldialdehyde . Journal of Chromatography A. 1995 ; 690: 55 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Essay On The Law Of? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Eye lens nuclei were hydrolysed in 1 ml 6 M HCl for know do my dissertation 6 h at 100°C. Law Of Life? An Agilent 1100 Series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Walbronn, Germany) was used for the chromatography and data analysis. Detection was performed using fluorescence (excitation = 340 nm, emission = 450 nm). The column was a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18, 4.6?150 mm, with particle size of 3.5 µm. Do My Dissertation? The HPLC-measured d/l ratios were calibrated using series of d/l standards: 0.5/99.5, 1/99, 2/98, 5/95, 10/90 and 15/85.

This series was run at the beginning and end of each HPLC run. On The Law Of? The measured d/l ratios from the a toddler, eye lens nuclei were recalculated using the calibration equations (linear regression) for the d/l standards. Narwhal racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. Eye lens nuclei d/l ratios were regressed against the number of GLGs in tusks to obtain a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals (Table 1). Included in the regression were d/l ratios from two near-term foetuses (=0 years old) and 13 young narwhals classified to age based on length and month of death (age range: 0.5–2.5 years old; length range: 175–298 cm; Garde et al. On The? 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in do my dissertation, narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by law of aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The slope of the regression line equals the 2 k Asp value, corresponding to twice the how to write a college thesis statement, racemization rate. The intercept of the line corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value.

A linear regression assumes that explanatory variables are measured without error. Violation of this assumption can lead to biased results and underestimation of the standard errors. On The Law Of? The explanatory variable is age, estimated from either length or GLG counts, both subject to error. The possible bias and standard errors were quantified via bootstrapping. Each bootstrap data set was created as follows: to the d/l ratios were added a normal random variable with mean 0 and SE equal to dartmouth mba essay, the residual SE from the ordinary regression assuming no error on the age estimates.

The age of the 15 foetuses and young whales were drawn from a uniform distribution on essay on the life, an interval given by the estimated age±0.5 years, and then rounded to mba essay, the nearest half-integer value. For whales where age was estimated by GLG counts, simulated values were rounded to the nearest integer. The uncertainty in the GLG counts was larger and essay on the based on whether the tusk was complete or not. If the neonatal line, the tip or the base were missing (Table 1), the uncertainty was increased. Uncertainty was also based on the readability of growth layers, especially concerning the two oldest tusks with many GLGs. The uncertainty was evaluated for each tusk, so the bootstrap study used different uniform distributions for each whale. The number of bootstrap replicates used was 10 000. Tusk lengths ranged from 34 to essays visual arts, 255 cm (Table 1). Essay On The Life? Tusk diameter (mm) measured at the melon front ranged from analysis essays visual arts, 12 to 63 mm. Length of the pulp cavity was between 56% and 100% of tusk length; the essay law of, shortest tusk (34 cm) had the lowest percentage pulp cavity, and the longest tusk (255 cm) had a pulp cavity running through the analysis arts, entire tusk.

Tusk mass ranged from 0.06 to 7.45 kg. Six out of nine tusks were worn at on the law of life the tip but were complete and included the neonatal line. A College Level Thesis Statement? The tip of the longest tusk (ID no. 4076) was broken off as well as being worn: it lacked the neonatal line and essay life several GLGs. The tip of the second longest tusk (ID no. 956) was also worn, and it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was still present. However, based on how it was worn, we assumed that, at most, only the neonatal line and a few, if any, GLGs were missing. To estimate the number of missing GLGs in observing, tusk ID no. 4076, it was compared with tusk ID no.

956, which was of almost the same length and diameter. It was concluded that the essay on the, missing tip of ID no. 4076 contained 10 GLGs. Fifty GLGs were counted in the tusk, giving a total of 60 GLGs after adding the missing 10. The root of the proximal part of the tusk from whale ID no. Dartmouth? 888 was partly destroyed during maceration, which complicated counting GLGs. The count of 24 GLGs may therefore be a minimum estimate for this tusk.

The proximal parts of law of tusks with ID nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were lost, having been cut off by the hunters during removal. By comparing these three tusks with other tusks, we estimated that 5 – 7 cm was missing in each case (Table 1). Observing? However, for the abovementioned four tusks, we assumed only a few, if any, GLGs were missing. GLGs were counted in all 11 tusks, and counts, or age estimates, ranged from 5 – 70 GLGs (Table 1). Tusk growth in length for the 11 tusks ranged between 3.54 and 9.11 cm ?yr with an average of 6.33 cm ?yr . Essay On The Life? The two largest and observing a toddler essay oldest tusks were growing the essay on the law of, least per year (range: 3.54 – 4.25 cm ?yr ). The remaining tusks grew between 5.38 and 7.73 cm ?yr except for tusk with ID no.

974 that had the observing a toddler, fastest growth of 9.11 cm ?yr . Width of individual GLGs did not diminish with age but varied between years (range for all tusks: 0.76 – 3.96 mm). Tusk lengths versus number of GLGs are shown in Fig. 2. Aspartic acid racemization rate in essay law of life, narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig. Dartmouth? 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of essay on the tusk growth. Fig. 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of tusk growth. Standard curves and linear regression equations.

The d/l standard series was used to produce two standard curves for each HPLC run. For each run, linear regression equations were calculated by regression of theoretical d/l ratios versus the measured d/l ratios from the d/l standards. The coefficient was r 2 =0.99 for each run. Individual d/l ratios were recalculated using the equation with a slope closest to 1 (range: 1.1295 – 1.2187) from a toddler, each run. Estimating the racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. The slope of the regression line (=2 k Asp value) including nine whales with tusks and 15 foetuses and young whales was estimated to be 0.00233±0.000080 SE with an intercept of law of 0.0579±0.00179 SE ( r 2 =0.98). The residual SE in the regression was 0.0073. The racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value were, therefore, 0.00117 ?yr ±0.000040 SE and 0.0290±0.00089 SE, respectively.

For the bootstrap study, the simulated age for whales ID nos. Dont Know Do My? 950 and 951 was drawn from a uniform distribution centred at their estimated age±1 year; for whales ID nos. 841, 953 and 974, an uncertainty of±3 was used; and for whale ID no. 4076, an uncertainty of ±5 was used. Finally, for whales ID nos. 4075, 888 and 956, the on the law of, values given in Table 1 are minimum values, with a possible underestimate of up to five years. Dartmouth Mba Essay? Therefore, for these three whales a number between 0 and 5 was added, with linearly decreasing probability.

The average estimate of the slope was 0.00229±0.000089 SE, and essay on the law of the average intercept estimate was 0.0580±0.00185 SE (Fig. 3). The r 2 was in all cases between 0.88 and 0.98. We finally estimate the racemization rate to 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 and the ( d/l ) 0 to 0.0290±0.00093. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in critical essays visual arts, tusks.

Fig. 3 Regression line from the essay on the law of life, bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on length. Write Level? The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to on the life, twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Fig. 3 Regression line from the bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on a toddler, length. The slope of the law of life, regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and Believing and Doubting the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Eleven narwhal tusks and matching eyes were sampled for the purpose of on the estimating a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regression of GLGs in dont know do my dissertation, tusks against law of, d/l ratios in synthesise list, eye lens nuclei. Eyes from two whales were discarded, as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Thus, samples from nine whales remained for analysis. The sample size is less than optimal, but the costs and difficulties of obtaining whole tusks and matching eyes preclude a more extensive sampling programme.

Furthermore, a high incidence of broken tusks in adult males (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by essay on the law of life the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) impedes sampling of old and complete tusks. The tusks in this study were not all complete (Table 1), which complicated the critical analysis arts, counting of GLGs, and there were some evident differences in on the law of, the readability of the tusks that were impossible to mba essay, quantify. Furthermore, it could only essay on the law of life be assumed that one GLG represents one year in narwhals. A deposition of one GLG per year in narwhal tusks is supported by analogy to other odontocete species (Hohn 2009 Hohn A.A . Age estimation . Analysis Essays Visual? Encyclopedia of marine mammals2nd edn. Perrin W.F . et al. Law Of? . Academic Press . Write A College Level Thesis? San Diego , 2009 ; 11 – 17 . [Google Scholar] ), and especially to the narwhal's close relative, the on the law of life, beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Write Thesis Statement? Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of on the law of Zoology.

2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Essay? Suydam R . Essay Life? Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for observing a toddler essay validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . Law Of Life? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Observing? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and until proven otherwise this is the most likely deposition rate. Tusk growth per year differed among the 11 tusks. The two largest and oldest tusks had the lowest growth rate, which is probably because growth in length ceases with age while growth in circumference and in weight increases (Table 1). Two racemization rates were estimated: one based on essay life, assuming that the age was known without error; and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the Believing, uncertainty in the age estimation. Uncertainty of the GLG estimation was mainly based on life, whether the tusk was complete or not.

The two oldest tusks had increased uncertainty because either the neonatal line was not present (ID no. Essay? 4076) or it was uncertain whether it was present or not (ID no. 956), and the neonatal line needs to be visible to obtain reliable age estimates based on GLG counts (Heide-Jorgensen et al. Essay Law Of Life? 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from visual, Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ). Another reason was that GLGs in teeth from old animals are more difficult to discern and count due to compact layering, wear of the teeth and often broken tips (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Law Of Life? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Luque et al. 2009 Luque P.L . Pierce G.J . Learmonth J.A . Know Dissertation? Santos M.B . Ieno E . Lopez A . Reid R.J . Rogan E . Gonzales A.F . Boon J . Law R.J . Lockyer C.H . Dentinal anomalies in teeth of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) from essay life, Scottish waters: are they linked to sexual maturation and environmental events? . Journal of the how to write a college thesis, Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2009 ; 89: 893 – 902 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The two estimated 2 k Asp values are, however, almost identical. In order to on the law of, recognize the uncertainty in the age estimates based on length and GLGs, we propose the 2 k Asp value of 0.00229 and critical analysis essays the ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 from the bootstrap study to be used in future age estimation studies of narwhals. Garde et al. On The Law Of? ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Statement? Hansen S.H . Nachman G . On The? Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and and Doubting game remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by on the law of life aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated the ages of know dissertation 75 narwhals using AAR with a racemization rate estimated by on the life linear regression using age estimates based on body length from the same 15 young narwhals used in this study and age estimates of 13 fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) from Nerini ( 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Visual Arts? Report of the International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . On The Law Of Life? [Google Scholar] ) based on counts of Believing game earplug laminations. The combined narwhal–fin whale 2 k Asp value of essay on the life 0.00209 is lower than the present one of 0.00229. Write Level Thesis Statement? This could potentially be a result of using data from two species with different ( d/l ) 0 values, but could also be caused by a lower core temperature of fin whales (36.1°C, from George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Essay On The? Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Know Do My? Canadian Journal of on the law of Zoology. Observing A Toddler Essay? 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . Essay On The Law Of Life? [Google Scholar] ) than that of narwhals. However, the core temperature of the beluga whale, the narwhal's closest relative, has been measured to 35°C (Katsumata et al. 2006 Katsumata E . Furuta C . Katsumata H . Watanabe G . Taya K . Basal body temperature method for detecting ovarian cycle in Believing and Doubting game, captive beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) . Journal of Reproduction and Development.

2006 ; 52: 59 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and we assume narwhal core temperature to be similar. But, this is essay law of, only speculation as no records of narwhal core temperature are available in the literature. The 2 k Asp value estimated here is specific to narwhals and should as such be a better proxy for dont know dissertation the value in narwhals than one based on narwhal and law of fin whale data combined. Both the 2 k Asp values from Garde et al. Critical Analysis Essays Visual Arts? ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Essay Law Of? Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of essays arts Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and the present one rely on indirect estimation of ages either through difficult GLG readings of narwhal tusks, body lengths or uncertain counts of earplug laminae in fin whales; they also rest on the assumption that one GLG is deposited per year throughout the life of the animal. Ideally, racemization rates could be derived from known-age animals in captivity or animals marked somehow early in their life. However, neither fin whales nor narwhals are held in captivity, nor are wild individuals being marked as young whales. Even if either of these approaches were technically feasible, a substantial number of on the animals would be required, ideally spanning the full longevity, to calculate authentic racemization rates. The estimated racemization rate and the ( d/l ) 0 value have different effects on AAR age estimates.

AAR age estimates of older individuals are influenced mainly by the racemization rate, while age estimates of young animals are affected primarily by and Doubting game the ( d/l ) 0 value (George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Essay Law Of? Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . Observing Essay? [Google Scholar] ). Essay On The? Therefore, when using the dont do my dissertation, AAR technique it is also significant that a reliable ( d/l ) 0 value for law of the species is available. Believing And Doubting? Dentinal GLGs can be examined in cross-sections of embedded narwhal teeth, but occlusion means that only a minimum GLG count can be obtained from older whales (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). On The Law Of Life? However, the dentinal layers representing early years (before sexual maturity) are readable in embedded teeth and can apparently provide reliable age estimates of young narwhals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . Critical Visual Arts? [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, for future studies it is recommended that both eyes and embedded teeth be collected so that both methods of age estimation of young narwhals can be used to derive an improved estimate of the essay on the law of life, ( d/l ) 0 value. To summarize, in this study we have estimated a species-specific 2 k Asp rate of 0.00229 and a ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 for narwhals by regression and bootstrapping of aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against GLGs in tusks. These estimates are the first based entirely on narwhal data. Though we recognize the small sample size as well as problems associated with using incomplete tusks, we nevertheless propose that these values be used in future AAR ageing studies of narwhals. But we also emphasize the Believing and Doubting game, need for collection of embedded teeth, intact tusks and matching eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in on the, this study and for examining both methods of age estimation. Thanks to Jeppe Mohl for cutting and preparing the narwhal tusks, and to Nynne Hjort Nielsen, Marianne Andersen and Kirsten Andersen for observing a toddler essay assistance with eye dissections and HPLC analysis.

Importation of essay on the law of samples into Denmark was authorized by write level thesis statement CITES permits IM 0721-199/08, IM 0721-200/08, IM 0330-820/09 and IM 0330-819/09. Funding for this study was obtained from the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources and essay law of life the Danish Cooperation for synthesise list the Environment in the Arctic. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. On The Law Of Life? Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to and Doubting game, the total length of the tusks in the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to GLG. a Measured at the melon front.

b D/L ratios corrected according to regression equations. c Data not available. Registered in life, England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.

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The Law of Life, by Jack London Essay -- Literary Analysis, Nature, Man

anecdotes in essays WRITING INTRODUCTIONS CONCLUSIONS. Even when you know everything about essay on the law of life, your paper's topic, it's hard to observing essay, know how to essay on the law of, create a hook that makes a reader want to mba essay, read it. And how in the world do you end satisfactorily? The fact is that many of us anguish over our intros and conclusions. The problem of introductions and conclusions is really one problem. Essay On The Law Of! They are linked, not only in anguish but in content; they are almost mirror images of each other. First, however, there are two common misconceptions to dispel. Mba Essay! Your thesis is. not an introduction. Essay! An introductory paragraph starts with a hook, which leads into the thesis. You do need an introduction as well as a thesis.

Second, a simple restatement of your thesis is mba essay, not a conclusion. To create that satisfying sense of finality in on the life, your conclusion, you must revisit the stuff of mba essay your introduction. If you start with a story, return to the story. If you start with a definition, return to the definition, even if only to on the law of, contradict it. Observing A Toddler Essay! From the TIP Sheet How to Start (and Complete) a Research Paper, you already know to start writing your paper in the middle, with the thesis statement and body. When you are ready to finish with the introduction and conclusion, choose from several strategies: Illustrate : Show instead of tell. Challenge : Raise reader expectations. Quote : Make use of the wordsmiths. Compare/contrast: Evoke familiarity by essay life, comparing or create tension and expectation by contrasting.

Define : Define-or redefine in a unique way. Synthesise List! Make a provocative statement : Offer an amazing statistic or personal insight. An illustration can be as simple as a personal story or anecdote . It's natural to essay on the, think of a college thesis statement a personal anecdote as an introduction to essay on the life, a personal narrative, but stories and synthesise list anecdotes can be effective introductions to any kind of paper. The following anecdote introduces a research paper on vegetarian and vegan diets. The conclusion returns briefly to law of, the story: We took our sons fishing in the spillway next to the dam one moonlit night. Believing And Doubting! In the hush of the night, one of them hooked a small trout. But when the landed fish screamed aloud, my son fled the scene in horror and has never eaten flesh since. People adopt vegetarian and vegan diets for different reasons, not all of them out of horror, as my son did. Whatever their reasons, they are finding more options in grocery stores, restaurants, and cookbooks than ever before.

An example taken from local or world news events is another kind of illustration. This is the introduction and conclusion to essay law of, a paper on urban growth problems in California: The Chico city council recently approved six hundred new homes to go in on the east side of the city. A Toddler! The impacts this development will have are likely to be extreme, illustrating the problems all California cities face in managing growth. How well Chico will cope with the increased traffic, pressure on schools, and on the law of life impacts to the watershed is yet to be seen. But Chico is not alone in having to find solutions soon. A composite illustration is a fiction that you create in know do my dissertation, order to make a point. (Composite means including a bit of essay law of this and a bit of that.) The advantage of a composite illustration is that it can be perfectly crafted to write thesis, fit your point. A composite can illustrate extreme examples that are possible though not likely (Suppose that. ), or distant consequences that are possible but not yet observed. Essay Life! An analogy is an extended comparison between one thing and another (the development of a balanced state budget compared with a shopping list, perhaps).

If you come up with an apt analogy, it can be very effective; however, a so-so analogy is better abandoned sooner than later. You are better off with a good story than with a mediocre analogy. For more on analogies, see the TIP Sheet, Writing an synthesise list, Analogy. Essay On The Law Of! Chances are, if you live outside city limits in write a college level statement, any of California's twenty-one rural counties, you couldn't use public transportation if you wanted to. There isn't any. Sure, Californians need to essay life, get over their love affairs with their cars, but having a better system of public transportation in place would help.

Then, perhaps, I could get from rural Durham to rural Oroville, where I live, without putting yet another car on the road. A question is another type of challenge: Does it make sense to prohibit minors from carrying calamine lotion with them at school without two kinds of written permission, and yet allow them to write a college level, leave campus without parental knowledge or consent for invasive medical procedures? Even more than many of the zero-tolerance laws in place in our schools, this one should be ditched. On The Law Of Life! Does it make sense? Clearly it doesn't. Note that a question is an introductory strategy , not a thesis statement. A thesis statement should answer the question, and in some detail-not just yes or no. Albert Einstein once said, Any man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is dartmouth, simply not giving the kiss the attention it deserves. It doesn't take an Einstein to realize that cell phones are not the first, nor will they be the last, driving distraction. We don't need more restrictions on cell phones; we just need better drivers. Song lyrics or familiar sayings sometimes make good introductions, but avoid cliches such as Haste makes waste.

If a familiar saying draws on jargon or sayings familiar only to a particular group, you have to essay on the law of life, provide the critical arts, context for those who are unfamiliar with that group: Computer programmers have a saying: Garbage in, garbage out. The next time you read the results of the life, latest poll, consider the polling method, the sample, and the source, and remember, Garbage in, garbage out. Compare or contrast. Synthesise List! When I was seven, I thought my father was all-powerful and could do no wrong. When I was seventeen, I thought he was a jerk. My father wasn't the god he seemed when I was seven, but he was sure a lot better and essay law of wiser than I thought he was when I was seventeen. In the how to write level thesis statement, matter of agricultural subsidies, we are better off sticking with existing evils than replacing them with others that promise far worse results. Another interesting use of definition is to use it as a starting point to re-define something in your own terms: Webster says friendship is mutual feelings of on the law of trust, affection, assistance, and approval between people.

However, I say friendship sometimes is knowing when to walk away. Walking away that day was the biggest favor Mai ever did for me. Make a provocative or startling statement. A Toddler! It is ridiculous and immoral to allow congressmen to on the law of, give themselves pay raises. Analysis Visual! Restricting the on the law of, ability of congressmen to vote themselves raises would go a long way to restoring morality and a sense of public service to public servants.

As you can see, introductions and conclusions are closely linked. Once you decide on a strategy, try simply over-writing the introduction (as one student we know regularly did) and then split off part of it to use as the conclusion. When you begin to think of introductions and conclusions as two pieces of critical analysis arts a single puzzle, you will probably find them much easier to write. Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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The Yellow Wallpaper And Law Of Life English Literature Essay

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of their goods, because of the price ceiling. This will automatically makes the producers gain small profit rather than normal days. Hence, the quantity . demand for the items will increase whereas the quantity supply will decrease. QUESTION 2 : ESSAY QUESTION i. How To Thesis. Are BONIA products elastic or inelastic? Explain the benefit of raising its existing prices. BONIA products are inelastic. Inelastic is an economic term used to describe the situation in essay on the law of which the supply and demand for dartmouth good are. Consumer theory , Goods , Inverse demand function 915 Words | 4 Pages. Mr. Stenger AP History 3 June 2012 DBQ Essay The world’s prior to 1492 and after 1648 were very different places.

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communication skills by understanding the importance of tailoring my style depending on the customer I am working with. This has given me a good reputation . in my company on several occasions for meeting an excellent service. Essay. * Experienced with report and essays and giving presentations having completed my BSc. and synthesise list my MSc. which I just rounded up in September this year. Team work and Leadership * I have also been able to benefit a lot from working as a team in my place of work which in several occasions. Amazon Web Services , Computer , Database management system 745 Words | 4 Pages. Brandi Voyles BIO-220 March 3, 2012 Professor Corona Global Warming Essay What is global warming, and how does human activities create . an impact on global warming? Many people do not understand the full concept of global warming. We also do not understand or recognize that our everyday activities and habits contribute a significant amount to global warming. What is global warming? Global warming ( noun) is an increase in the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Earth 836 Words | 3 Pages. use of plagiarism detecting tools.

These are programs that have been built with the main objective being to essay, detect plagiarized work. These programs can be . easily accessed online such as; Gramarly, Turnitin which is produced by iParadigms and also Essay Verification Engine. (Gilmore 53) Paraphrasing and synthesise list use of quotations Plagiarism can also be avoided by proper paraphrasing. Paraphrasing refers to use of your own words while at the same time retaining the intended meaning of words and ideas as the. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Andrew Dickson White 744 Words | 3 Pages. reinforced throughout the novel, that Crake has a solid perspective on what the essay life world and and Doubting humankind has become. Your friend is intellectually honourable . . . . He doesn't lie to essay on the life, himself.

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This idea seems especially. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Christianity 1566 Words | 3 Pages.