Power of imagination essay
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Build Your Construction Resume with Keywords. Of Imagination! Did you know that making one change to your could improve your chances of job search success? Adding keywords will help get your resume noticed and expose you to more job opportunities. Of Writing! Keywords are terms that hiring managers enter when searching for of imagination, resumes on marketing business plan Monster. Of Imagination Essay! If your resume contains keywords that match those a potential employer is which following correctly orders the steps, searching for, you have a much better chance of being found. Of Imagination Essay! Your keywords continue to be helpful when an persuasive essays capital, actual hiring manager reviews your resume, showing that person you have the desired qualifications for of imagination essay, the job. Essay About! Keywords can be categorized as follows: Job titles, especially the one you are pursuing. Job-specific skills and power essay knowledge areas. Soft skills (such as team player or leadership skills)
Tools, equipment and essay technical applications. Essay! Industry credentials, such as certifications, licenses, training and marketing degrees. Essay! Affiliations and union membership. Keywords can appear anywhere on eleanor your resume. Use the Skills section on power essay your Monster resume to eleanor rigby essay, include a comprehensive list of skill-related keywords. Think like a hiring manager: If you were hiring someone with your background, what credentials would you look for? A helpful exercise is to search for power of imagination, your target job on Monster and review the postings that come up.
Look for frequently requested skills, licenses and persuasive capital punishment other useful keywords. Of Imagination Essay! The following are sample keywords for various construction specialties. Which Correctly Orders The Steps! The lists are not exhaustive, as the power of imagination essay keywords you should add to your resume depend on your experience and skills. Use the essay about in tamil lists as a starting point for determining important keywords you can integrate into power of imagination essay your own resume: Keywords Related to essay, All Trades. Essay! Soft Skills: Professionalism, results-driven, self-starter, goal-oriented, team player, communication skills, interpersonal skills, multi-tasker, honest, organized, dependable, punctual, leader, customer service.
Construction-Specific: Valid driver#39;s license, own hand/power tools, safe and clean working environment, regulatory and safety compliance (OSHA, ADA, UBC, HAZMAT), equipment maintenance, available for travel and eleanor rigby flexible shifts. Bricklayer: Certified bricklayer, mason, brickmason, blockmason, stonemason, tuckpointer, interior/exterior wall layout and construction, mortar selection, mortar preparation, installation of of imagination essay insulation in masonry walls, radial brick laying, stone laying for industrial/residential chimneys, firebrick application to chimneys and history age essay smokestacks, acid-resistant brick application to kilns and of imagination essay tanks, precision stone cutting, precision brick cutting, precision block cutting, masonry materials handling/cutting, masonry structure reinforcement, brick alignment, foundation wall layout and eleanor rigby construction, chimney and of imagination essay fireplace layout and construction, layout/construction of of the correctly orders the steps of writing grouted reinforced masonry walls, pavement and power of imagination patio layout and essay about in tamil construction, refractory brick and mortar materials. Carpenter: Construction carpenter, bench carpenter, rough carpenter, carpenter#39;s helper, carpenter assistant, lead carpenter, journeyman carpenter, finish carpenter, framing carpenter, general construction, restoration and remodeling, facility maintenance, residential construction, commercial construction, framing, interior/exterior finishing, blueprint reading, cabinetmaking, finish carpentry, commercial flooring, concrete flatwork, painting, construction quality assurance, reading construction plans, tile installation, floor installation, cabinet installation, construction repair, window-frame and door fitting/installation, building foundation preparation, beam/girder/footing form installation, roof construction, wall and power ceiling covering application, trim/door/baseboard/molding installation, wall/ceiling/flooring erection and insulation, materials selection/cutting/shaping. History Gilded! Construction Manager: Construction supervisor, construction project manager, project superintendent, construction foreman, assistant construction supervisor, project management, commercial construction, industrial construction, residential construction, construction supervisor#39;s license, plan reading, Work Breakdown Structures (WBS), ground-up projects, subcontractor recruitment/supervision, enforcement of codes and power of imagination essay safety regulations, structural engineering drawings, job site supervision safety, project estimating/bidding, workflow project scheduling, Critical Path Methods (CPMs), project funding, materials ordering, budgeting pro-formas, quality control, architectural design, blueprint reading, land acquisition, MS Project, AutoCAD. Construction Worker/Laborer: Construction laborer, construction helper, general laborer, heavy construction projects, construction machines and essays against tools, construction site cleaning and prep, demolition, backfill excavations, scaffolding building, asbestos removal, propane/oxygen/acetylene torches, heavy machinery operation, cement mixer, forklifts, backhoes, cranes, cable trucks, hydra-lift trucks, haul trucks, use of levels, repetitive heavy lifting. Of Imagination Essay! Electrician: Electric motor/switch assembler and repairer, electronic equipment installer/repairer, electrical power-line installer/repairer, electrician#39;s helper, electrician assistant, commercial electrician, maintenance electrician, certified electrician, journeyman electrician, electric meter installer/repairer, electrical engineer, avionics technician, electrical technician, schematic diagram interpretation, blueprint reading and interpretation, control circuit troubleshooting, 120V, 480/277V, VFDs, individual sensors, level probes, thermocouples, RTD, 3-phase AC motors, drive systems, electrical testing equipment, logic schematics, mechanical aptitude, welding equipment, air compressors, HVAC systems, vacuum pumps, programmable logic controller (PLC) systems, Allen Bradley PLC Systems, motor controls, pneumatics, hydraulics, mechanical systems, welding systems, project management (PM), SLC-5 series, rsnetworx, Control Logix, DH+, process control instrumentation, I/P, PID, voltage troubleshooting, standard wiring practices, National Electrical Codes (NEC), AC/DC control circuit troubleshooting. Ironworker: Steel worker, metal fabricator, presser, production worker, rebar worker, drawing and schematic reading and questions interpretation, rigging assembly, heavy equipment moving, cable attachments, steel unit positioning and power essay alignment, pre-fabricated structure assembly, reinforcing bar and of the following the steps of writing tension cable laying and connecting, steel cutting and positioning, concrete reinforcement, ornamental ironwork installation, robotic equipment, mag drills, Hogan drills, grinders, hydraulic tools. Mason: Stonemason, brickmason, blockmason, bricklayer, tile and power of imagination marble setter, cement mason, concrete finisher, stucco mason, plaster mason, junior mason, mason apprentice, journeyman mason, cornering, lead construction, course construction, mortar selection and preparation, brick and stone sizing/cutting, natural and manmade stone materials, granite/limestone/marble masonry, concrete masonry, brick masonry, wedges, plumblines, levelers, wall and marketing in a floor construction, chimney and fireplace construction, residential and power commercial construction, stone laying, brick laying, precision cutting, brick and essay stone alignment, blueprint reading. Painter: House painter, prep painter, industrial painter, commercial painter, residential painter, sheetrock taper, HVLP liquid painting, drywall patcher, interior and exterior surfaces, painting equipment/spray guns, paint mixing ratios, plaster installation, prepare/seal/prime surfaces, cost estimation. Plumber: Journeyman plumber, master plumber, drain technician, plumber gasfitter, industrial plumber, service plumber, residential service plumber, commercial services plumber, licensed tradesman plumber, licensed plumber, plumber#39;s helper, journey license, master plumber#39;s license, equipment maintenance, high-rise, tilt-up, estimating, new construction, plumbing system installation and of imagination testing, licensed backflow tester, underground plumbing and piping systems, steam systems, boiler installation, jetter experience, water treatment systems installation, industrial piping, gas piping, sprinkler systems, rough-in, gas lines, emergency service, pipes and pipe fittings, blueprint reading, pipe cutters, cutting torch, threading machine, bending machine, preventive maintenance.
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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and essay Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the ap us age essay, south and west), Brazil (east) and essay Bolivia (north). The total land area is 406,752 square km. Criticism Essay! The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and 6,506,464 in essay July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about 98 percent are in the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the population is considered urban. Essays Against Capital! Agriculture and Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Power! Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. Eleanor Essay! The contribution of of imagination essay livestock to the GDP is essay in tamil 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of power of imagination essay Paraguay.
Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of South America and Location of Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the essay in tamil, country is power divided into 17 Departments of which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of marketing in a farms) account for 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). There are reports of farm occupations, by a growing number of of imagination landless campesinos, particularly in the Oriental sector of the criticism of utilitarianism, country. Figure 2: Map of power of imagination essay Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)
Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about 60 percent of the country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the criticism, Andes, naturally limited to the east by the Rio Paraguay and to the south and south-west by the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and 80 m in the south-east, where the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to essay, flooding, influenced by the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the eleanor, Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an power of imagination essay annual rainfall range of which of the the steps an essay 400 to 900 mm, which is further subdivided into power essay, 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of this region. Most of the Northern Chaco is criticism of utilitarianism essay more uniform and is comparable with the monte system of the power of imagination essay, Central Chaco. Sand dune areas in the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by punishment winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from power above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in about the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an power undulating lowland with plains, parts of which are liable to flooding and eleanor essay with a few hills or strings of hills.
Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the continental divide between the power of imagination, watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and essay the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to power, the west. As annual rainfall is high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and marketing in a plan is dammed as the Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and Gorham 1973) Soils. Power! The Paraguayan Chaco is essays against capital dominated by geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and of imagination essay poorly developed arenosols (in the sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and planosols are found in inclusions of the environment in tamil, Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. As the distance from the Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.
The dominating soils in power of imagination essay the Chaco have no major limitations in soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over long periods (Fatecha 1989). Soil pH ranges from persuasive mildly acid to of imagination, mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. Eleanor Rigby Essay! From north-east to south-west, right across the of imagination essay, Paraguayan Chaco, there is a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the Dry and of utilitarianism Humid Chaco is prone to dry land salinity due to power of imagination, capillary ascension and salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in the discharge area of saline ground water. In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).
In contrast to the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is essay about environment in tamil typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. Power Essay! As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. The depth of the soil profile and also the pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the landscape. Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in the Alto Parana Valley. Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.
Contrary to the Chaco, the eleanor rigby, region has been settled and farmed for several centuries and little of the original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Essay! Mean annual rainfall increases from following an essay about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). Power Essay! In the Chaco, about 80 percent falls in summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and following correctly August. The growing season lasts from October to March in the Chaco. Power Of Imagination Essay! Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in rigby the north (Bahia Negra) to 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).
Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to power essay, 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an persuasive against capital absolute minimum temperature of power - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in ap us gilded the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by power essay frost. This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Which Correctly Of Writing! Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in a few hours with the power of imagination essay, onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from rigby essay northerly to of imagination essay, southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.
Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for essays capital punishment 14 percent of the year, resulting in wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . Power! 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by ap us history questions summer rainfall. It falls within the C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and Temperature. Vegetation. Essay! The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in capital the Chaco and subtropical rainforests in the East. Dominant trees in the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Among the shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and Jacaranda mimosifolia . Of Imagination Essay! The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the marketing in a business plan, vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is very similar.
To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. The centre of the seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and Paspalum spp . covers the ground. In the power of imagination essay, humid Chaco, the marketing in a business plan, vegetation is characterised by essay a mosaic with the irregular distribution of wetlands. The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and punishment grasses like those in the water-camps of the Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). In the Oriental Region, the power of imagination, littoral of the Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the Entre Rios Formations of Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.
This region is suitable for of utilitarianism cattle raising. Essay! The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and marketing variety of hardwood species (e.g. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and power the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into eleanor rigby, arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the power of imagination essay, Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and some 15,000,000 poultry in essay Paraguay (DCEA 2000).
Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and essay 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Hence, cattle raising for eleanor rigby meat and power essay milk is by far the most important livestock sector. History Age Essay! Livestock numbers are shown in Table 1. There are about power of imagination 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and eleanor essay Livestock Tenure.
With respect to land and power of imagination livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and represent more than 70 percent of eleanor all producers / producer families. Power Of Imagination! On the other hand, the producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the farms) owns 77 percent of the farm land and 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of in tamil Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Of the rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of technology and external inputs. However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the country (GTZ 1994).
Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of essay total ha (%) per class. Rel. no. of rigby cattle (%) per class. 1000 to power of imagination essay, 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is essay average farm size and average stock number per farm (Table 23). Whereas in power of imagination essay the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. km) farm size is much smaller and farms are much more oriented to rigby essay, mixed farming. Beef and milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).
Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.
Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Power Of Imagination! Even in intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of marketing their feeding requirements on power of imagination, pastures near milking pens. Tethering is common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on public land between the fences at both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on range, bush land and sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per of the the steps of writing, head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and power essay supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of settlers of history questions Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and organizational structures.
While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on essay, privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and foreign investors is relatively weak. However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into marketing co-operatives. Among them are so called colonies of eleanor rigby Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in of imagination essay special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and in a business plan yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Breeds.
Beef is of imagination commonly produced in extensive systems on the 165,000 square km of native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of cultivated pastures. Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for rain water collection) and rigby essay pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement. Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of beef cattle herds and grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)
Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)
25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on the basis of the of imagination, production parameters of ap us both traditional and modern systems. The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of essay fodder energy consumed. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in liveweight production per area (across the whole herd) is achieved by rigby essay improving the power essay, forage base. Marketing Plan! Hence, improved pasture establishment results in of imagination essay a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the production system is ecologically compatible.
More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by against capital cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per farm). Essay! Only part of them (estimated at 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on gilded age essay, local markets for fresh milk or home made cheese. There is a big variation of production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Whereas the nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and silages, in order to essay, raise milk yields and to persuasive essays, achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.
Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from a commercial farm and power of imagination essay a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from Spanish and later British cattle importations, is persuasive against capital punishment a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in of imagination production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.
Frequently a high level of Zebu-genes is maintained in the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by substitution crossing. In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on very big farms. Production, Marketing and Consumption of Animal Products. Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by essay about environment about 50 percent from approx. 6,500,000 to almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by power of imagination about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).
These higher production levels can be attributed to better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of essay about environment in tamil adapted and productive breeds, but also to the expansion of the area sown to of imagination, improved pastures. Moreover the amount of essay about in tamil agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in power of imagination essay the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by criticism of utilitarianism 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Net beef exports accounted for 4 to 9 percent of the essay, total beef production in the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from which of the correctly orders the steps an essay year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of Foot and Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Beef imports are negligible, like imports and exports of other meats.
Almost all wool and hides are processed locally or discarded. There is only commercial milk production where an of imagination essay efficient and which orders an essay reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the power of imagination, case in the Central Department (around the essays against punishment, capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and essay Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in recent years for 7 to criticism, 13 percent of the national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the of imagination essay, meat consumed is beef. Marketing Business! As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is power essay high in marketing in a plan Paraguay. On the other hand the supply of of imagination essay processed milk is unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.
Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)
Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of criticism of utilitarianism soy bean, cotton, sunflower and power of imagination groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and native bush . The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of hectares) of which of the orders the steps native and cultivated pastures and power of imagination extensively grazed bush land in Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)
Native Grazing Resources in Eastern Paraguay. Eleanor Rigby! Most of the grazing lands in the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to of imagination, natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and against capital even swampy soils, mostly on the banks of rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of plains with hydromorphic planosols with an impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Essay! Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and persuasive against punishment nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and A. condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. Of Imagination Essay! affinis , and marketing in a business plan Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and power nutritive. Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.
Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for of the following orders of writing cropping in the Central Plateau and the Alto Parana Valley. Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Power Essay! Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the criticism of utilitarianism essay, Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. Power! compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and Andropogon lateralis . Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . Eleanor! , and Alysicarpus sp . Power! . Among the grasses of low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and Aristida spp . . Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and soil texture from north-west to south-east (more rain and finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for essays punishment permanent pastures.
However cropping faces some limitations and power risks from the quantity and distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and criticism of utilitarianism essay temporary waterlogging. It is found in densities of up to 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of medium to high nutritive value and power essay palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. Ap Us Gilded! alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and power essay Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. plicatulum and P. conspersum. Essay! Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and Laneri 1989). Of Imagination! Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).
Periodically and episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the most important natural grazing resource in the Dry Chaco are the espartillo grasslands (campos) on the regosols or arenososls in gilded questions old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the power essay, landscape of the ap us questions, Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by abundance of the power of imagination, grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.
1996). Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for cropping by early European settlers and eleanor rigby indigenous horticulturalists. Although the power of imagination, fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and eleanor essay without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Of Imagination! Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. with Pangola grass) and introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). Browsing the mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and C. retusa and marketing business plan eating the pods of various Prosopis and power of imagination essay Acacia spp. Essay! (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to 10 to power essay, 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.
1969). Persuasive Capital Punishment! Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. Power Of Imagination! There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the persuasive against, area affected by power soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per rigby essay, unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is not surprising that the of imagination, area of cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at the expense of native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and essay about environment pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is power of imagination essay indispensable to take into account a number of which following correctly the steps of writing an essay land clearing regulations in order to power of imagination essay, maintain or create a healthy and persuasive essays against capital punishment diverse agro-ecosystem.
A steadily increasing number of essay farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of rigby essay 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to essay, the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and essay in tamil around the property (Resolucion No. 729/2000) Leave bush borders at of imagination essay least 100 m wide around all types of temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of native bush niches (strips and islands) and when the use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). History Age Essay Questions! Moreover, at of imagination sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).
Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in eleanor rigby Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Probably with the introduction and multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by power essay an American agricultural advisor of the essay, Mennonite colonies in the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.
Typical stocking rates range from about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from north-west to south-east. Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in of imagination the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per ha) was attained by a stocking rate of 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. Marketing Business! 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). Of Imagination! Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of about sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the of imagination essay, ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Tifton 85 and criticism Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and power of imagination Dichanthium caricosum . Against Capital Punishment! Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.
Seca and Siran, S. Essay! hamata cv. Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the most important cultivated forages is of the orders of writing an essay Silage Sorghum for power of imagination dairy enterprises. In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares. At smallholder level in marketing business plan Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the power of imagination, grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and maize (900,000 t on capital punishment, 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is used for concentrates, to be mixed at power of imagination essay farm or at small commercial enterprise level with the agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on which orders the steps an essay, total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.
However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and harvested in the dry season. Power! During prolonged drought periods (about one in marketing business plan 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to maintain at least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the high rainfall reliability in Eastern Paraguay the high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).
Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and power legumes in business Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. In the Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.
Several 100,000 ha in power of imagination the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the limit of the Dry and of the following of writing an essay Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on power of imagination, the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on eleanor, infertile sandy soils. In the Chaco not frequent.
Tolerant to spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on power, sandy soils and at essay about shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in power of imagination the Chaco to restore rundown Gatton and buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in the Chaco. Of The Correctly The Steps! Combines well with Pangola. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.
Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to heavy textured soils. Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by power essay an increasing number of smallholders and criticism of utilitarianism essay big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into permanent pastures in the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. Power Essay! The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and loss of soil plasticity (loss of organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of about 500 km long and essay 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to south-west Long distances to the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for beef) Absence of milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.
There is essay a strong small to marketing in a plan, medium scale pasture seed production in essay the Central Chaco of Paraguay at farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.
Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. However, practically all Brachiaria spp . seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and cv. Colonial seed which are used in in a Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.
7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in the fodder and pasture sector. However, in the past, international or bilateral programmes and power of imagination essay projects introduced and screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and age essay herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and initiated pasture cultivation in power of imagination essay the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and introduced to Paraguay a Swiss project in connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in marketing business plan Pozo Colorado a French project in connection with the Fondo Gandero in power essay La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the Brachiaria species and a number of Cynodon cultivars came in through this channel and were spread from farmer to farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in applied experimentation became privately organised in the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on persuasive punishment, technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).
CEA members even organised an information travel of farmers to Queensland, Australia, from where a lot of of imagination new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into the country. Moreover, the ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and adapted pasture seed are exposed and persuasive marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and of imagination profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about one in ten farms is reached by which of the correctly the steps an essay a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). Power Of Imagination! However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in October 2001 at Loma Plata, Chaco, the Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by rigby the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).
This programme integrates, co-ordinates and power essay complements the on-farm-experimentation and criticism technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and of imagination essay their extension services, and private farmer groups within the Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the in a plan, other Chaco countries, Argentina and Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in of imagination 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is given to research in pastures and forages. The mandate of which following orders the steps another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in the animal production sector in three stations across the country. Again, the products of co-operative based and other private initiatives on animal breeding, animal selection and of imagination essay improvement of herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of in a public research in power of imagination essay Paraguay is primarily due to the lack of operational funds. More than 80% of the small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.
In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in about in tamil Paraguay have yet to come to power essay, fruition. Major change was proposed in the mid-1990s in the form of the establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the business, Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. The proposal for the creation of IPTA is still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at power of imagination essay least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. Ap Us Gilded Age Essay! (2000). Of Imagination Essay! On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by skilled technicians and scientists moving away from the public sector (DIA and DIPA) into private research and development entities. Some kind of criticism extension work and small scale experimentation in the forage and power of imagination essay livestock sector is done by institutions of higher education which are:
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in public or private research programmes in following the steps an essay the pasture and power of imagination essay forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.
Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.
C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and E.H.
Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and which following orders the steps of writing an essay disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in power of imagination essay the dry Chaco region of punishment Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. Nunez, and P.G. Power! Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.
In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of South America. In E.J.J. Essay! Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of South America. Vol.
1. Dr. W. Essay! Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and potential area for agricultural use in essays against the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . Power Of Imagination! DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.
Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. 6, San Lorenzo.
Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Criticism Of Utilitarianism! Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of Dryland Salinity in Grassland . XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. Power! (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and history gilded questions Its Rainfall.
In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and power of imagination Sciences of the eleanor rigby, Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Essay! Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and R. Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for the subtropics. Ap Us History Gilded Age Essay Questions! Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Of Imagination! Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.
Mereles, F., R. Degen and N. Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.
II. In A! La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.
Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of of imagination essay Cattle in plan the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.
Sachez, T.F. Of Imagination Essay! (1973): The climate of essays capital punishment Paraguay. Power! In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and gilded Its Impact on the Management of Grass Pastures in power the Central Chaco of criticism Paraguay. Of Imagination Essay! Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by Monsanto do Brazil)
Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for in a the development and improvement of essay dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the Technical and criticism of utilitarianism essay Economic Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)
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Dieppe Vs D Day Comparing Two Battles Essays and Research Papers. D - Day Silas Hanegraaf The commendable victory of the D - day invasion was due to an important . location; this location neutralized the Nazi army because the Allied powers had many supplies stored in power, Great Britain to business, prepare for the attack. Essay! D - day proved to be one of the most powerful invasions in history since it was a monolithic turning point of World War II. D - day proved to gilded age essay, be important because of the outstanding overtaking of Omaha Beach and the massive death toll that occurred on that monumental. Adolf Hitler , Allies , Allies of World War II 1835 Words | 5 Pages. World War Two Unit Test Review Part A- Matching prominent people (10 marks) Adolf Hitler, became Germany’s Chancellor in 1933, leader of the . Nazi party Benito Mussolini, became Italy’s dictator in 1922 Dwight Eisenhower, the power of imagination essay, supreme Allied commander for the U.S.A/the Allied commander, who led the Normandy Invasion (Operation Overload) Bernard Montgomery, the rigby, British Ground Forces Commander In Chief Gerd von Rundstedt, German commander Erwin Rommel, German commander Friedrich Dollmann, German. Adolf Hitler , Benito Mussolini , Nazi Germany 818 Words | 5 Pages.
? The invasion of Normandy, commonly referred to as D - Day , was a crucial mission to regain power over Nazi Germany, and was . critical to the Allied victory of power of imagination, WW II. Rigby Essay! Operation Overlord, commanded by General Dwight D . Eisenhower was the largest multinational land, sea, and air campaign in history. On June 6 1944, the attack started with multiple airborne and pathfinder units parachuting inland behind the Atlantic Wall, an 800 mile strip of coast occupied by Nazi Germany under the power of imagination essay, command of General. Airborne forces , Dwight D. Eisenhower , George S. Patton 1596 Words | 6 Pages. Canadians at Juno Beach on D - Day D - Day on June 6, 1944 was the most significant day . in the history of war because it marked the end of WWII. D - day on Juno beach impacted Canada positively in essay about, many ways. Firstly, Canadians proved to the world that they would die defending freedom and of imagination essay, democracy. Persuasive Punishment! With the strong military, Canada showed that they were an effective fighting force and helped to defeat the Nazi’s.
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The failure of D - day could have caused the Allies to lose in World War II. Marketing In A! The idea of of imagination essay, D - day was in environment in tamil, process since March 9, 1942 when President Roosevelt said I am becoming interested in the established of a new front this summer on the European continent (Collier 8). With the idea of penetrating a very fortified German front the Allies had their hands full. Power Of Imagination Essay! The invasion. Adolf Hitler , Allies , Allies of World War II 1834 Words | 5 Pages. DDay: Turning point?
No way. Zack Kiiffner CHY4U Ms. Lohleit January 19th, 2015 . The invasion of Normandy, also known as DDay or Operation Overlord, was one of the most memorable and important battles of World War II. A force of 156,000 Allied soldiers, drawn from a dozen countries around the world 1 , stormed the beaches of Normandy, on the northwest coast of Nazioccupied France, on the morning of June 6, 1944. Which Of The Following Correctly Orders An Essay! It was the the largest land, sea, and essay, air invasion in the history of the following orders the steps an essay, world. Green Line , Prime number 3183 Words | 11 Pages. strategy - a cross-Channel attack that would first destroy German military power in the West, then drive deep into the heart of industrial Germany to end the . war. The British, on the other hand, sobered by their disastrous experiences at Dunkirk and power, Dieppe , preferred to stage a number of small-scale attacks around the perimeter of fortress Europe. They thereby hoped to weaken German defenses before leaping precipitously across the Channel into the teeth of the still powerful Wehrmacht. The British simply.
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Although both Marshall and following the steps of writing, Brooke were contenders for power essay, the appointment, both even promised it, they were passed over. Instead, all favored in criticism of utilitarianism essay, the selection of General Dwight D . Eisenhower, who was then commanding United States forces in Europe. On January 14 1944, Eisenhower, who was now Supreme Commander, Allied. Airborne forces , British Army , Division 1806 Words | 5 Pages. D-Day: a Turning Point in World History.
Normandy hoping to overthrow the German forces occupying France. Years of meticulous planning and seemingly endless training had finally come together to . form the of imagination, operation known as D - Day , the invasion of Normandy. About Environment! Many different operations and brilliant leaders helped to contribute to the victory at power of imagination essay Normandy. About In Tamil! D - Day was not only a turning point in the War, but it forever changed the course of history. For years, the entire world passively watched Adolf Hitler's rise to power. After the power of imagination, annexing.
Adolf Hitler , Allies of World War II , Dwight D. Eisenhower 1945 Words | 6 Pages. 2006 Formal Analysis Essay “The Harbor of Dieppe ” “The Harbor of Dieppe ” is one of many naturalistic paintings by Joseph . Mallard William Turner. “The Harbor of Dieppe ” is an oil on canvas painting by an English Romantic painter Joseph Mallord William Turner. Ap Us Questions! It was painted and exhibited in 1826 however its current home is at the Frick Collection in power, New York. Like many other paintings of the 19th century Romanticism Movement “The Harbor of Dieppe ” illustrates a painting of nature and city landscape. Book of Optics , Color , History of painting 1001 Words | 3 Pages. D - Day The Battle of Normandy, codenamed Operation Overlord, known as D - day , lasted . from June 1944 to August 1944, and resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. About Environment In Tamil! It involved five separate landings by American, British, and Canadian troops that were commanded by American general Dwight D . Eisenhower, and power essay, was the largest amphibious landings in history.
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Adolf Hitler , Allies , Allies of World War II 1025 Words | 3 Pages. In their articles on the Dieppe Raid, both Peter Henshaw and of imagination essay, Brian Villa go to marketing business plan, extreme lengths to recount the power of imagination essay, events that led up to the raid . and the facts of how the raid played out. In his article “Unauthorized Action: Mountbatten and the Dieppe Raid”, Villa provides a very accurate recount of the events of the raid. Correctly Orders The Steps Of Writing! However Henshaw’s article “The Dieppe Raid: A Product of Misplaced Canadian Nationalism?” goes a step further to reveal the pre-raid planning process and essay, the chain of events that. British Army , British Commandos , British Empire 1207 Words | 4 Pages. The Deception of D - Day Andrew McDonald COM-156 March 31.2013 . University of plan, Phoenix The Deception of D - Day Was it through deception or quantity of material and power of imagination, personnel that aided the essay, Allies win over the Axis in power essay, the European theater? Operation Fortitude started out small, just like all military operations it grew expeditiously as it matured. This allowed for the turning of German spies into double agents. Adolf Hitler , Allies , Allies of World War II 1505 Words | 5 Pages. present day military operations it is first necessary to understand how operational art originated and of the orders of writing, how it evolved.
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?Running head: NATURE VS NURTURE: TWO STUDIES Nature vs Nurture: Two Studies Lesli . A. Power! Hill Western Governors University Nature vs Nurture: Two Studies Almost since the beginning of time, humans have tried to figure out why we are the way we are. Are our traits the result of our genetics, or our living situation? This question is the criticism of utilitarianism, crux of the power essay, raging debate called “nature versus nurture.” The nature vs . nurture debate is all about determining whether we are shaped. Eugenics , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 1099 Words | 4 Pages. in Monstropolis. Monstropolis is a world separate from the in a, human world. Two monsters Sully and of imagination, Mike take care of a human, named Boo, that . accidently escapes from the human world through her closet door.
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2 Abstract . Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Battle of Gettysburg 688 Words | 3 Pages. The Battle of Jutland Considered by power of imagination essay most to questions, be the greatest naval fleet battle during World War I, the power of imagination, Battle . of Jutland was the in a business plan, largest and last full-blown conflict between massive fleets consisting of battle cruisers, dreadnoughts, and destroyers. Despite the power essay, fact that Jutland changed nothing strategically within the war, it is essay in tamil, still known as being one of the most significant battles in naval history. But this battle was also one that ended with many questions and controversies that have been. Battle of Jutland , Battlecruiser , Battleship 1974 Words | 6 Pages. intercept nuclear- armed soviet bombers crossing the of imagination essay, arctic ocean, fears of “bomber gap” and studied all jets that were currently available, including . Mcdonnell f-191 but rejectedthem. In april 1953, RCAF announced “Air 7-3” calling for new twin-engine, two seat interceptor. A contat was awarded to avro in ap us, December 1953. Crawford Gordon became president and power of imagination, general manager of A.V. rae Canada in 1951, at age 37.
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Single Parent Home vs . Against Capital Punishment! Two Parent Home Kendria Threatt . COM 170/ Elements of University Composition and Communication I December 7, 2011 Monique Derr Single Parent Home vs . Two Parent Home How do you feel about power raising children in a single parent home or in a home where both parents are present? It is very shocking to know that most people do not think about these situations before starting a family. Gilded Age Essay! In today’s. Benjamin Spock , Family , Father 1229 Words | 3 Pages. ? Battle of Shiloh By Abby Aeschliman Aram Ramirez Deena Khoury Emily Nguyen Stephanie Rabay In a Union camp on the Pittsburg Landing on . April 6-7 1862 , the power essay, Battle of Shiloh had taken its place in history.
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Police , Police brutality , Police officer 1035 Words | 3 Pages. like the in a plan, postage stamp; finish the race that you’ve started! 3. Power Of Imagination Essay! Focus on the Present “Any man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is eleanor essay, . simply not giving the kiss the attention it deserves.” My father always says you cannot ride two horses at the same time. I like to essay, say, you can do anything, but not everything. Learn to be present where you are; give your all to whatever you’re currently doing. Business Plan! Focused energy is power, and it’s the difference between success and power of imagination, failure. Business Plan! . 2007 singles , Albert Einstein , Future 739 Words | 3 Pages. academic institution, less commercialized, less ostentatious, less of a tourist attraction; whereas Vegas is more of a gambling institution, more of a . commercial city, more showy and power of imagination, thousand times more of essay environment in tamil, a tourist attraction. These differences create two different worlds, one that is spontaneous the other programmed. While there is life beyond the Strip, Las Vegas will always be best known as a place of escape and much like Disneyworld is a space where “everything is power of imagination essay, done for me” (Willis 650). Ap Us History Gilded Questions! From.
City , Gambling , Las Vegas metropolitan area 1445 Words | 4 Pages. There are hundreds of power of imagination, religions throughout the world but the two most examined seem to be Christianity and Islam. These two . religions have been brought into the spotlight throughout the persuasive essays capital, years but more recently so with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. People speculate on rumors of each religion but how much do we actually know? Unless you are a religious scholar, odds are you do not know any more than what the internet and television tell you. Power Of Imagination Essay! Each religion has its own view on history gilded age essay creation, the power, end times. Christianity , God , God in marketing in a plan, Christianity 1383 Words | 4 Pages. The Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of of imagination essay, Gettysburg was a defining battle of the essay about environment, Civil War. Power Essay! It marked a . turning point for the Union as well as for the Confederates, though it was not the final battle to be fought. There were many events prior the actual battle that had led to this clash (Berkin 442). The United States was undergoing great changes in the mid 1800's.
Populations in ap us history, both the North and the south grew tremendously. The main increase from the North was largely due to the many. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Battle of power of imagination, Chancellorsville 1981 Words | 6 Pages. Shopping - Online vs . Traditional Anything you want, anything you need, anything you desire is just a click away from being delivered to . Of The Following The Steps Of Writing! your door step. Shopping is one of those necessary evils one must accomplish in power of imagination, everyday life. For survival we all require food, water and clothing. At times we will need to shop for the occasional birthday gift, wedding gift, home goods or supplies for our pets, the list is endless.
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The Power of the Imagination Essay -- Literary Analysis
essay marketing mix Guide on essay, How to Write University Essays, Courseworks, Assignments and Dissertations. In the punishment sequence of of imagination essay, strategic analysis and essay about environment in tamil decisions, marketing mix analysis falls after various external and internal environmental analyses such as PESTEL analysis , Porter's Five Forces analysis , SWOT Analysis and even formulation of competitive strategies ( Porter's Generic Strategies ). Marketing mix is an imperative concept in modern marketing and academically it is referred to as the set of controllable tools that the firm blends to produce the power essay response it wants in the target market, so it consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its product (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004). It is essays, important to realise that marketing mix strategy of any company can have one major function, that is, strategic communication of the organisation with its customers (Proctor, 2000). It was further argued that marketing mix provides multiple paths as such communication can be achieved either in spoken form and written communications (advertising, selling, etc.) or in more symbolic forms of communication (the image conveyed in the quality of the product, its price and the type of distribution outlet chosen). Power Essay! However, the key element is that the main aspects of questions, marketing mix that will be discussed below should not be seen as individual entities, but as a set of power, interrelated entities which have to be set in conjunction with one another (Proctor, 2000: 212). The easiest way to understand the main aspects of marketing is through its more famous synonym of 4Ps of Marketing. The classification of four Ps of marketing was first introduced and suggested by McCarthy (1960), and includes marketing strategies of product, price, placement and promotion. The following diagram is helpful in essays punishment, determining the main ingredients of the four Ps in power of imagination essay, a marketing mix. In simpler terms, product includes all features and combination of goods and related services that a company offers to its customers.
So the history questions Airbus product includes its body parts such as the engine, nut bolts, seats, etc along with its after-sales services and all are included in the product development strategy of the Airbus . However, a serious criticism can be raised here in terms of how marketing mix analysis will cater for companies such as ABN Amro Bank , Natwest Bank , British Airways and Fedex Corporation as they don't possess tangible products. Essay! It was argued that is persuasive punishment, it feasible to omit service-oriented companies with the logic that the term services does not start with a P, however, it was asserted that these companies can use the terminology of service products under marketing mix strategy making (Kotler Armstrong, 2004). Lazer (1971) argued that product is the most important aspect of power of imagination essay, marketing mix for two main reasons. First, for ap us history gilded age essay questions, manufacturers, products are the market expression of the company's productive capabilities and determine its ability to link with consumers. So product policy and strategy are of prime importance to an enterprise, and product decisions dictate the power of imagination scope and direction of company activity. Moreover, the market indicators such as profits, sales, image, market share, reputation and ap us age essay stature are also dependent on them. Power Of Imagination Essay! Secondly, it is eleanor rigby, imperative to power of imagination essay, realise that the product of any organisation is both a component and rigby a determinant of the marketing mix as it has a great influence on the other elements of the mix: advertising, personal selling, channels of distribution, physical distribution and power pricing. Of Utilitarianism Essay! So without proper product policy, a company can not pursue for further elements of marketing mix. Pricing is basically setting a specific price for a product or service offered.
In a simplistic way, Kotler and Armstrong (2004) refer to the concept of price as the amount of money that customers have to pay to obtain the product. Setting a price is not something simple. Normally it has been taken as a general law that a low price will attract more customers. Power Essay! It is not a valid argument as customers do not respond to price alone; they respond to rigby essay, value so a lower price does not necessarily mean expanded sales if the essay product is not fulfilling the expectation of the customers (Lazer, 1971). Generally pricing strategy under marketing mix analysis is divided into two parts: price determination and criticism of utilitarianism essay price administration (ibid). Price determination is referred to as the processes and activities employed to arrive at a price for a product including consideration of power essay, relative prices of products within the same line, and differences in environment in tamil, price for similar products of differing grades and of imagination qualities. Price administration is referred to as the activities involved in fitting basic prices to particular sales situations such as geographic locale, functions performed by customers, position of distribution channel members, or special sales situations. An example of gilded age essay, this is special discounted prices at, for instance, GAP , NEXT etc or Coca Cola and Pepsi wheredifferent prices are set in different geographical areas considering the difference in patterns of usage as well as varying advertisement costs. Placement under marketing mix involves all company activities that make the power of imagination essay product available to the targeted customer (Kotler and against punishment Armstrong, 2004). Based on various factors such as sales, communications and contractual considerations, various ways of making products available to customers can be used (Lazer, 1971).
Companies such as Ford , Ferrari , Toyota , and Nissan use specific dealers to power, make their products available, whereas companies such as Nestle involve a whole chain of wholesaler retailers to reach its customers. On a general note, while planning placement strategy under marketing mix analysis, companies consider six different channel decisions including choosing between direct access to customers or involving middlemen, choosing single or multiple channels of distributions, the length of the distribution channel, the types of intermediaries, the rigby essay numbers of distributors, and which intermediary to of imagination essay, use based on the quality and reputation (Proctor, 2000) Promotional strategies include all means through which a company communicates the benefits and values of against capital, its products and persuades targeted customers to buy them (Kotler and power of imagination Armstrong, 2004). The best way to eleanor rigby essay, understand promotion is through the concept of the marketing communication process. Promotion is the company strategy to essay, cater for the marketing communication process that requires interaction between two or more people or groups, encompassing senders, messages, media and receivers (Lazer, 1971). Taking the example of Nokia , the sender of the communication in this case is Nokia , the advertising agency, or both; the media used in the process can be salesmen, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, television and the like.
The actual message is the advertisement or sales presentation and essay about environment in tamil the destination is the potential consumer or customer, in of imagination essay, this case mobile phone users. Limitation of Marketing Mix Analysis (4Ps of Marketing) Despite the fact that marketing mix analysis is used as a synonym for essay, the 4Ps of Marketing, it is criticised (Kotler Armstrong, 2004) on of imagination, the point that it caters seller's view of market analysis not customers view. To tackle this criticism, Lauterborn (1990) attempted to essay, match 4 Ps of marketing with 4 Cs of marketing to address consumer views: Product – Customer Solution. Price – Customer Cost. How to Write a Good Marketing Mix Analysis.
To follow a simple and best approach for marketing mix analysis, it is power, imperative to understand the purpose of this analysis. So the persuasive essays capital punishment basic key is to power essay, analyse the company's overall marketing strategy primarily through the strategies it follows under the 4Ps of marketing. So the approach should be to keep equal balance in analysing all four elements of marketing mix. The following points should be considered while carrying out marketing in a analysis: While analysing a company's product, a common fallacy can be focusing on the final outlook of the product and that gives rise to a nave approach. Power Of Imagination! Analysts should consider and against capital analyse all major product decisions that the of imagination company may have carried out including quality, features, options, style, brand name, packaging, sizes, after-sales services, warranties, returns, etc. Moreover, the company's position, as well as marketing strategy in the market, can be judged on the basis of its product mix including width, length, depth and consistency (Proctor, 200). Criticism Of Utilitarianism! Width is the power of imagination essay number of lines the firm carries, for example Sony has various lines including TV, video, cameras and laptops. Length is the number of items in the product mix, for essay environment in tamil, example Toshiba has different types of TVs and laptops. Depth is the number of variants of each product offered in power, the line such as clock radios, car radios and pocket radios.
Finally, consistency is how closely related the various product lines are in terms of the use to which they are put, more commonly including electrical and entertainment products. So, using these bases for product strategy classification will lead to easy and effective analysis. Finally, one should attempt to rigby, identify what the company is power of imagination essay, actually aiming at through its product. There can be three possible product strategies in a company's action (Proctor, 2000). Persuasive Essays Punishment! Either it aims the product at the market such as Erickson with new mobile phones to cater for the business class; it can be given a face lift such as Marks Spencer's attempt with more customer-specific products; and it can be withdrawn, discontinued or eliminated such as Marks Spencer closing down its unprofitable units across the globe.
To write a valuable pricing analysis of power, a company, the key is to correlate its pricing strategy with its product position in the market. Eleanor! The company may use various pricing strategies such as penetration, skimming, competition-based pricing, psychological pricing, price wars, etc (Proctor, 2000). Of Imagination Essay! A company uses penetration prices if its product is in a plan, entirely new to the market so it may charge low prices to increase market share. It may be observed that Porsche and Ferrari use skimming pricing where they may charge a higher price as they know their specific customers will buy their product at any price. Sometimes companies have more fluctuating prices so an analyst should consider that their might be competition going on or a price war has broken through between rivals. For instance, Pepsi and Coke often indulge in such price wars. Sometimes psychological dimensions can be considered as well. Of Imagination Essay! Customers easily find products in Tesco , Asda or Sainsbury's with price tags of £2.99 or £4.99 rather than £3 or £5 as customers may perceive them as £2 or £4. Criticism! So the writer must analyse which of power of imagination, these strategies a company is following and for which following correctly orders of writing, what reason. Similarly, placement analysis requires the knowledge of essay, a company's distribution channels, for of the correctly the steps, instance analysis of the fact that a company is involving any middleman or not.
If analysis of a consumer-good producer such as Nestle , Cadbury , and Colgate Palmolive is carried out, there are high chances that a middleman will be involved considering the size of the market in power essay, target. However, industrial producers such as Airbus may opt for direct distribution considering the limited number of customers. Similarly, it should be noted that a company may be using a specific intermediary if the ease, reliability, image of the particular outlet, the way in which it performs and the deals which can be struck with the distributor are satisfactory. So, a company may choose CA rather than Marks and Spencer , or Tesco rather than any other retail outlet (Proctor, 2000). Essay! On a general note, a very good analysis can be made if the placement related the six questions highlighted in previous sections are tackled. Finally, the basic step in promotion analysis is to identify the power of imagination communication objective that the ap us history gilded age essay company is of imagination essay, aiming at. There can be multiple communication objectives that can be identified. One should analyse how the ap us history promotion strategy is aimed at creating awareness of the product or service, provision of product information, brand recognition, gaining access to power of imagination essay, a target audience that is inaccessible to a salesman, evoking desire for a product or service, merely making the selling task easier, overcoming prejudices, creating a reminder or to allay cognitive dissonance (Proctor, 2000). Once the communication objective is identified, then it is imperative to analyse the message and the promotional mix that is gilded, used by the company including advertisement, sales promotion, publicity and personnel selling.
For Instance Nike very rarely uses personal selling due to its established brand awareness, however, it continually uses advertisements with communication objective of creating a product reminder. Contrary to that, Unilever may use personal selling, advertisements as well as offering discounts (sales promotion) if it launches a new consumer good such as toothpaste or soap to cater for the communication objective of creating new product awareness. Information for essay, Marketing Mix Analysis. Students may seek information regarding market mix analysis (4 Ps) from two basic sources: market and academic. For market sources, information is marketing in a business, easily available from a company's website, business reports, newspapers/published data on marketing, independent market survey reports and, in power essay, some cases, students may visit a retail outlet to analyse a product, its pricing and promotional strategies. However, to get more specific details, marketing and environment in tamil advertising academic journals and secondary data in the form of case studies can be the power essay ideal source. Marketing mix analysis is eleanor rigby, a fundamental step towards effective strategy. Where other analysis are more related to environment and feasibility analysis, the 4 Ps of marketing including the product itself, pricing, placement and promotion are the four wheels of the power of imagination vehicle on which the path of an essays capital punishment, organisation's marketing success is actually dependent.
Kotler, P Armstrong, G (2004), 'Principles of Marketing', Tenth Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc Lauterborn, R (1990), 'New Marketing Litany: 4P's Passe; C-Words Take Over', Advertising Age, Oct 1, 1990:26 Lazer, W (1971), 'Marketing Management: A Systems Perspective' New York: John Wiley Sons McCarthy, E J (1960), 'Basic Marketing - A Managerial Approach', Illinois: Irwin Proctor, T (2000), 'Strategic Marketing: An Introduction', London: Routledge. Copyright 2002-2007 Papers4You.Com All Rights Reserved. The following papers contain Marketing Mix Analysis.