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Grand resume de Qui est « je » ? Sociologie clinique du sujet , Paris, Editions du Seuil, 2009. 1 Quel degre de conscience, de volonte, de maitrise l’homme a-t-il sur ce qui le constitue ? Dans quelle mesure peut-il intervenir sur son destin ? Qu’en est-il de l’unite du sujet, de sa coherence, de ses capacites d’action, de son existence meme ? La notion de sujet nous pose une infinite de questions qui traversent l’histoire de la pensee depuis ses origines. University Of Wisconsin System Application Essay Questions! La philosophie judeo-chretienne, relayee par le siecle des lumieres, l’a mise au centre de sa conception de l’humain. Creative Writing Listserv! La psychanalyse et les sciences sociales (en particulier les structuralistes et Michel Foucault) ont fait eclater la notion, en critiquant ses composantes idealistes et ideologiques. University System Application Essay! Pourtant, malgre son caractere flou, complexe, difficile a cerner, eminemment critiquable, et bien qu'elle renvoie a bien d’autres concepts eux-memes objets de multiples acceptions (Moi, Je, identite, Soi, personne, subjectivite…), la notion de sujet semble incontournable. Essay Reflective! Entre psychologie et sociologie elle reapparait en permanence, meme au sein des theories les plus retives a la philosophie du sujet. System Questions! Parmi ces multiples debats, il convient de mieux comprendre en quoi le sujet est indissociable de son assujettissement, d'examiner la pertinence d'un concept qui porte en lui des significations contradictoires. 2 Etymologiquement, selon le dictionnaire historique de la langue francaise, le terme sujet vient du latin subjectus qui veut dire soumis, assujetti, expose ou encore de subgicere qui signifie placer dessous, soumettre, subordonner. Cesar Chavez Essay Winners! « Sub » marque la position inferieure et « jacere », le sens de jeter. University Of Wisconsin System Application Essay Questions! On retrouve le terme dans l’ancien francais sugester : maintenir dans la soumission ou encore sougire qui signifie soumettre par la force des armes ou autrement. Papers! Le terme renvoie donc initialement a l’idee de soumission. University Essay Questions! Il s’applique a une personne soumise a l’autorite d’une autre.
De la vient l’usage de sujet du roi , du seigneur qui renvoie au statut de vassal et de justiciable, donc d’assujetti au pouvoir legal. Paper! La sujetion evoque l’action de « mettre sous, a la suite », que l'on retrouve dans les termes voisins de soumission et d’assujettissement, c’est-a-dire la situation d’une personne soumise a une autorite contraignante ou souveraine. 3 C’est dans le registre philosophique qu’une autre acception du terme emerge. University Of Wisconsin System Questions! Au xiii eme siecle il a le sens de « chose qui a une nature propre ». Essay Contest Winners! Au xiv eme siecle, le terme sujet est employe a propos de ce qui, dans une ?uvre litteraire, constitue le contenu de pensees sur lequel s’exerce le talent createur de l’auteur. Of Wisconsin Questions! De la vient sujet d’une science , c’est-a-dire la matiere dont elle traite. Opportunities! Parallelement, sujet designe un etre vivant soumis a des experiences ou a l’observation, par exemple quelqu’un que l’on soigne. Essay Questions! A partir de la fin du xvi eme siecle le mot designe une personne consideree comme le motif, le support d’une action ou d’un sentiment, par exemple une femme aimee, une personne digne d’interet.
On evoque alors des bons sujets ou des mauvais sujets . Cell! Mais c’est au xix eme siecle que le terme va acquerir sa consistance philosophique designant l’etre pensant, considere comme le siege de la connaissance par opposition a objet (cf. University Of Wisconsin Essay Questions! le subject d’Emmanuel Kant). Reflective! Le terme sujet implique dans un premier temps une conscience rationnelle puis dans les sciences humaines une quete de mise en conscience face a l’inconscient. 4 La conception d’un individu qui cherche a se rendre maitre de son destin en devenant un sujet est confortee par l’evolution politique de la reconnaissance du citoyen comme sujet de droit , donc d’une personne reconnue par la societe egale en droit et en dignite a toutes les autres. University Of Wisconsin! On assiste a un renversement de sens : ce qui designe au depart la soumission, l’assujettissement, la position inferieure (etre en dessous), designe aujourd’hui par la conscience et par le droit, la quete de liberte face aux determinismes psychiques ou sociaux, la position superieure de la personne qui s’affirme comme etre pensant, etre parlant, etre social. On Forrest! Mais ce renversement n'est en fait qu'apparent dans la mesure ou c'est precisement parce qu'il y a assujettissement que le sujet peut advenir. 5 Selon Judith Butler l’assujettissement « designe a la fois le processus par lequel on university of wisconsin system, devient subordonne a un pouvoir et le processus par lequel on cesar essay contest, devient sujet ». Of Wisconsin System Essay! Il convient donc de rompre, nous dit-elle, avec l’idee d’un assujettissement qui serait le fait de pouvoirs agissant de l’exterieur qui s’exerceraient sur le sujet pour l’empecher de se realiser et chercheraient a le contraindre, le devaluer ou le releguer a un ordre inferieur.
Elle nous invite a rendre compte de la maniere dont « le sujet advient a l’etre ». Essay Winners! Le petit d’homme est d’emblee assujetti au desir de l’autre, de ses parents, et aux normes du systeme social dans lequel il vit. University Of Wisconsin System Application! Double dependance, sociale et psychique, qui opere par l’influence de multiples determinations. 6 Les deux aspects du processus d’assujettissement peuvent sembler opposes alors qu’ils sont complementaires. Listserv! D’un cote, l’idee de soumission, de subordination, d’infeodation a un pouvoir. Of Wisconsin System Application Essay Questions! De l’autre, l'idee d'individuation, d'autonomie, de singularite qui invite l'individu a devenir un sujet. Fuel! Ce double mouvement correspond aux deux faces du pouvoir. 7 - Celle de la domination, du poids des determinismes, du cadre qui contribue a la fabrication des individus, des lois et des normes qui canalisent son devenir, de l’heritage dont il est l'heritier, de tout ce qui contribue a produire un individu conforme aux normes de son milieu, adapte a son environnement, soumis aux lois, a la culture, aux institutions, aux autorites de la societe qui l’entourent. 8 - Celle des supports, des moyens, des dispositions, des capacites d’agir, des ressources diverses, tout ce qui permet a l’individu de se construire comme un sujet capable de reflexion, d’affirmation de lui-meme, investi dans le projet de se faire une existence propre. System Essay! Pour etre un individu autonome dans la societe il faut disposer d’un certain nombre de ressources, de capitaux economiques et culturels, de droits. Cell! Ces supports objectifs doivent se combiner a des supports subjectifs : le desir d'autonomie, le developpement de capacites d'agir, de penser et de vivre, l'implication dans le travail d'exister. Une double determination sociale et psychique.
9 La question du sujet s'inscrit dans une double determination sociale et psychique. University Of Wisconsin System Questions! Si l'individu est le produit d'une histoire, cette histoire condense d'une part l'ensemble des facteurs sociaux historiques qui interviennent dans le processus de socialisation et, d'autre part, l'ensemble des facteurs intrapsychiques qui determinent sa personnalite. Is Logic! Il convient alors d'analyser les processus socio-psychiques qui fondent l’existence de l’individu, sa dynamique subjective, son inscription sociale, ses manieres d’etre au monde, son identite. University Of Wisconsin System! Loin de s’opposer, le social et le psychique, quand bien meme ils obeissent a des lois propres, s’etayent et se nouent dans des combinatoires multiples et complexes. 10 Il existe une complementarite necessaire et dynamique entre le psychique et le social. Term Paper Gump! Tout phenomene psychologique est un phenomene sociologique dans la mesure ou l'on ne peut concevoir un sujet sans objet, sans ideologie, sans l'ordre symbolique qui fonde les voies par lesquelles il s'affirme comme tel. University Of Wisconsin System! Le monde psychique est bien une realite qui a ses propres lois de fonctionnement, mais elle n’est accessible qu’a travers des significations et des pratiques sociales. On Cyber Bullying! La preuve du social ne peut s'effectuer qu'a travers des constructions mentales : on of wisconsin system, ne peut saisir le sens et la fonction d'un fait social qu'a travers une experience vecue, son incidence subjective et la parole qui permet d'en rendre compte. Papers On Cyber! L'objectivite ne consiste donc pas a neutraliser l'apprehension subjective, mais plutot a analyser en quoi la subjectivite intervient dans la production de la connaissance. 11 La realite ne peut-etre apprehendee sans tenir compte du « vecu », c'est-a-dire l'experience concrete, singuliere, individuelle et collective de l'histoire.
Le vecu ne peut etre saisi que dans la parole d'un sujet qui en ouvre l'acces a autrui. Essay! Le passage par la subjectivite est necessaire pour acceder a l'objectivite, cette derniere n'etant apres tout qu'un moyen de cerner l'irreductible psychique, c'est-a-dire la place qu'il reste au sujet pour se constituer comme etre desirant. 12 L'existence individuelle se construit a la rencontre de « l'individu produit » – produit des rapports sociaux, de la culture, du desir des autres, de l'Histoire – et « de l'individu producteur » – producteur de son histoire, en quete d'une identite qui lui soit propre, affirmant son existence propre dans les reponses apportees aux contradictions de son existence. Term Paper! L'individu est a la fois agi par un certain nombre de determinismes et en meme temps agissant dans la mesure ou son « desir d'etre » le pousse a explorer d'autres possibles, a trouver la jouissance et la completude dans des formes de realisation de soi qui le poussent a se creer et a s'affirmer comme etre singulier, a advenir en tant que sujet. 13 L'autonomie du sujet humain ne se realise pas dans le surgissement d'une liberte substantielle a l'etre de l'homme, mais dans la confrontation aux multiples contradictions qu'il rencontre dans son existence. Of Wisconsin Application! Face aux conflits intrapsychiques d'une part et aux contradictions sociales de l'autre, l'individu se construit comme un soi-meme en developpant quatre dimensions : sa reflexivite, c'est-a-dire sa capacite a se mettre en question, a comprendre le monde dans lequel il vit, a inventer des reponses nouvelles. Cesar Chavez Contest Winners! C'est en ce sens qu'il peut etre createur d'histoire.
ses capacites d'action deliberatives, c'est-a-dire ses engagements pour contribuer a la production de la societe et a la production de lui-meme. ses capacite de dire ce qu'il eprouve et d'eprouver ce qu'il dit, c'est-a-dire une coherence entre ce qu'il pense, ce qu'il ressent et ce qu'il exprime, la ou s'enracinent la securite interieure et la confiance en soi. la reconnaissance de ses propres desirs face aux desirs des autres, non pour les imposer, mais pour les composer dans la mesure ou l'affirmation de soi et la reconnaissance de l'alterite se conjuguent l'une avec l'autre. Une volonte involontaire, une reflexivite irreflechie. 14 Les critiques sur les illusions que provoque la notion de sujet ne sont pas etrangeres a celles qui ont conduit Sigmund Freud a le recuser pour proposer une conception contradictoire de l'appareil psychique. University System Essay! Dans la deuxieme topique, le moi est une instance soumise aux exigences opposees du ca et du surmoi. Creative Writing Listserv! Du point de vue de la psychanalyse, la volonte du sujet est manipulee par des forces inconscientes qui en limitent singulierement l'exercice. Application Essay Questions! Mais comment demeler l'intrication du moi et du ca dans la comprehension des conduites humaines ? 15 Entre le « je », du cote de la reflexivite et de la volonte, et le « ca », du cote des pulsions et des desirs inconscients, comment demeler ces deux poles totalement intriques dans la subjectivite humaine ? La reflexivite s'effectue pour une bonne part a l'insu du sujet, la volonte consciente est la consequence de forces qui se developpent sans que le sujet le veuille. Is Logic And Critical Thinking! Il ne peut exister de volonte pure dans la mesure ou celle-ci est toujours surdeterminee par l'histoire, le contexte, le desir, le corps, autant de facteurs qui s'imposent au sujet et a son vouloir. University! La volonte prend appui sur l'involontaire, dans un rapport de reciprocite paradoxale. 16 Il en va de meme pour la reflexivite.
La pensee est toujours portee par des idees qui traversent l'esprit. Cell Dissertation Fuel! Le sujet ne pense pas tout seul. Essay! Il s'appuie sur des connaissances acquises, des representations preexistantes, des idees incorporees, des langages preetablis, des facons de penser interiorisees. Term On Forrest! L'artiste, comme le chercheur ou l'intellectuel, ne font que recomposer des elements deja connus. Questions! De ce travail peut emerger du nouveau, de l'imprevu, de l'inattendu. Papers On Cyber Bullying! Ainsi, le sujet reflexif tente de se penser autrement parce qu'il est confronte a des insatisfactions, des conflits, des repetitions dont il souhaite se degager. Of Wisconsin! Il cherche a ouvrir des espaces nouveaux dans ses capacites reflexives en esperant par la meme liberer des capacites d'action.
Il advient dans toutes les tentatives, plus ou moins couronnees de succes, de choisir, le plus lucidement possible, des options qui traduisent d'une part ses aspirations profondes, du cote du sujet desirant, d'autre part leur mise en acte, du cote du sujet acteur et agissant. 17 Le sujet advient, entre determinisme et liberte, dans un entre-deux plus ou moins contradictoire. On Forrest! Dans certains cas, les determinismes sont du cote de la contrainte, de l'emprise, de la repression ou de l'inhibition ; dans d'autres, ils poussent vers l'ouverture, le degagement, la liberation. University Of Wisconsin System Application! Il convient donc, ni de l'idealiser en l'inscrivant du cote de la liberte ou de la toute puissance, ni de le recuser comme porteur d'illusion et de naivete. Essay Learning! Simplement d'analyser le processus de subjectivation par lequel l'individu cherche a advenir comme sujet a partir de l'ensemble des elements constitutifs de son histoire et de son etre.
18 L'avenement du sujet s'inscrit dans une double polarite entre le refus de l'assujettissement et le desir d'etre. Of Wisconsin Questions! Le de-assujettissement le conduit a recomposer ce qu'il est pour construire autre chose en se degageant des attributs de son identite heritee et des visees auxquelles il a pu etre assigne. And Critical Thinking! Le sujet advient d'abord dans la negation de ce qu'il est. University Application! Il lui faut rompre avec une partie de ce que l'histoire a fait de lui. And Critical Thinking! Mais il ne s'agit pas seulement de rupture, il advient a travers la construction d'une ?uvre, la creation d'autre chose, la reconfiguration de son histoire, le choix de son existence, le developpement de sa reflexivite, la reconnaissance de son desir et son investissement pour « faire societe ». 19 On trouve ici une description des differentes dimensions du sujet : Le sujet social developpe sa capacite a subvenir a ses propres besoins, a acceder a l’autonomie necessaire pour avoir une existence sociale et contribuer a la production de sa place dans la societe, tout en assurant son independance. Le sujet existentiel affirme son desir d’exister pour lui-meme, en apprenant a reconnaitre son propre desir face au desir de l’autre et en se degageant des projections imaginaires dont il a pu etre l’objet de la part de ses parents, de son entourage, de ses conjoints ou de ses enfants. Le sujet reflexif s’autorise a penser par lui-meme, a affirmer ses croyances, ses idees, a fonder ses opinions sur sa « raison », la coherence entre ce qu’il sait, ce qu’il ressent, ce qu’il exprime, a confronter ses croyances a celles des autres sans se laisser imposer un point de vue exterieur. University Of Wisconsin System Application Essay! C’est toujours en definitive une parole qui fonde la capacite d’etre sujet de son histoire.
Le sujet acteur trouve la confiance en lui-meme dans ses capacites d’action qui lui permettent de se realiser a travers ses ?uvres, ses conquetes, ses travaux, ses productions sociales. 20 Chacune de ces dimensions renvoie a differents champs theoriques dont il convient de penser les connections, les differences, les oppositions : L'univers de la societe, de la culture, de l'economie, des institutions, des rapports sociaux, des statuts et des positions sociales, la ou l'individu est « sujet socio-historique » confronte a des determinations multiples liees au contexte dans lequel il emerge. L'univers de l'inconscient, des pulsions, des fantasmes et de l'imaginaire, la ou l'individu est sujet desirant et confronte au desir de l'autre qui contribue a le produire et/ou a l'assujettir. L’univers de la reflexivite, la ou l’individu se constitue en sujet d’une parole qui lui permet de penser ( cogito ergo sum ), de nommer et d’acceder a une certaine maitrise dans son rapport au monde. L'univers de l'action, dans la mesure ou le sujet se revele dans ce qu'il produit, dans ce qu'il realise comme auteur, dans les actes concrets qui marquent son existence. What And Critical Thinking! Devenir producteur de sa propre vie, c'est d'une certaine facon la creer comme un artiste cree une ?uvre d'art, ou comme un artisan produit un objet. 21 Il existe une tension dialectique entre le sujet reflexif – celui qui pense – du cote de la conscience, le sujet du desir – celui qui doit advenir face aux processus intrapsychiques – du cote de l’inconscient, et le sujet sociohistorique – celui qui cherche a advenir face aux determinations sociales – du cote de l’individu social. Of Wisconsin System Application Essay! Le processus de subjectivation se developpe dans une recherche de mediation entre ces differents poles qui sont plus ou moins en opposition selon les periodes de l'existence et les contextes. 22 La question du sujet nous conduit a mettre la contradiction au centre de l'analyse parce qu'elle est au fondement de l'etre de l'homme et de l'etre de la societe.
Cette perspective dialectique met le chercheur, comme le praticien, dans une tension entre deux postures. What Thinking! L'une fait confiance au sujet pour l'accompagner dans la prise de conscience de ses problemes et l'invention de reponses pour tenter de les resoudre. University! L'autre se mefie du sujet a cause des multiples illusions dont il est porteur et du risque de le voir se perdre dans le narcissisme, l'idealisme, la toute puissance ou l'aveuglement. Cesar Winners! Le retour du sujet qui semble aujourd'hui de mise dans les sciences humaines et chez les professionnels de la relation conduit a etre vigilant sur la posture du sociologue clinicien. Of Wisconsin System Application! Comme clinicien, on term paper, ne peut que se rejouir de constater que la subjectivite n'est plus consideree comme une dimension qu'il convient de neutraliser pour acceder a la connaissance. University Of Wisconsin System Essay Questions! Comme sociologue, on what and critical, doit s'interroger sur ce phenomene en se demandant s'il n'y a pas la une nouvelle ideologie face a la crise qui traverse actuellement les societes contemporaines. Vincent de Gaulejac , « Grand resume de Qui est « je » ? Sociologie clinique du sujet , Paris, Editions du Seuil, 2009 », SociologieS [En ligne], Grands resumes, Qui est je ?, mis en ligne le 27 decembre 2010, consulte le 03 octobre 2017.
URL : http://sociologies.revues.org/3362. ISSN electronique 1992-2655. Informations Title: SociologieS Briefly: Revue internationale des sociologues de langue francaise, generaliste et ouverte a la diversite theorique et methodologique.
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Specifications for Thesis Preparation. This entire document can be read from beginning to end or particular sections can be quickly referenced by using the university of wisconsin system essay questions table of contents. This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on essay Graduate Programs, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses. The Institute is committed to the preservation of each student's thesis because it is both a requirement for the MIT degree and a record of original research that contains information of lasting value. The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the archival paper copy. System Questions. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements. Essay Learning. Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to university essay questions the MIT Libraries (14N-118, email@example.com, 617-253-5136). The academic department is papers bullying, required to deliver the proper number of copies of the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the application term in which the what thesis was submitted (Faculty Regulation 2.72).
One copy is kept as part of the permanent archival collection, and the other copy is reserved for future disposition. An online catalog record, which includes the thesis abstract, is prepared for of wisconsin system application essay, all theses deposited in the MIT Libraries. This information appears in reflective, Barton, our online catalog, which is questions, accessible to researchers at other institutions through the Internet, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an essay papers, online international bibliographic system available to libraries and individuals worldwide. PhD and of wisconsin application questions, ScD theses are also listed (with abstract) in ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ) and Dissertation Abstracts International ( DAI ). For each thesis received by the Libraries, a digital version is created and made publicly available in DSpace@MIT (http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses). Essay Papers On Cyber Bullying. Copies of theses may be obtained through the MIT Libraries' Document Services (14-0551, 617-253-5668; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://libraries.mit.edu/docs/). Students may choose to submit a born-digital PDF of the thesis via the Libraries voluntary submission portal (http://thesis-dropbox.mit.edu/vireo/start). However, the of wisconsin system application electronic version is creative, not considered to be the official copy. Degree candidates must submit the required copies of their theses to the appropriate office of the department or program in which they are registered on the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. The Academic Calendar may be found in of wisconsin application essay, the MIT Bulletin and at http://web.mit.edu/registrar/www/calendar.html.
September, February, and June are the only months in which degrees are awarded. Additional copies of the thesis may be required by papers on cyber bullying the department. All theses should be turned in to the appropriate departmental office; the office will deliver the of wisconsin application theses to the MIT Libraries within a month after the last day of term. In this guide, the copy that remains in and critical thinking, the Archives is called the first copy . Additional copies required for the divisional libraries (see following section) are referred to as the second and (possibly) third copies . The department may ask for copies in of wisconsin questions, addition to those required for the Libraries. Learning. The student may, of course, keep personal copies. Not all departments send bachelor's theses to the Archives. If your department does, only one copy should be submitted to the Archives. Please check the requirements of your department. Of Wisconsin Essay. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee.
Number of copies: Normally, two copies are required for the Libraries €“ one for the Archives and a second for the appropriate divisional library. A third copy is required only when a student is submitting the same thesis to departments or programs from two separate MIT schools (e.g., Management and cell fuel, Engineering). If the departments are in the same school (e.g., Engineering Systems and university system, Mechanical Engineering), only two copies are required. Doctoral theses only: A completed UMI/ProQuest form (see section below) with an what and critical thinking, additional copy of the title page and abstract stapled to it is also required. Most MIT theses are written by a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy (for undergraduates) or set of copies (for graduate students) should be submitted to the Archives. The title page of the thesis should bear the signatures of all authors and thesis supervisors. (Permission to undertake collaborative thesis research must be obtained in advance from the Dean of Graduate Education [3-138, 617-253-4860, http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/joint-theses). Submission of Doctoral Thesis Abstract to International Database: UMI/ ProQuest Dissertations Theses Database. Abstracts of all doctoral theses (PhD and ScD) will be submitted for inclusion in of wisconsin system application essay, ProQuest Dissertations Theses , an essay on cyber, online database used by researchers around the world. PQDT can be searched by author name, subject terms, and all words in the title and abstract. All MIT abstracts will contain a note stating that copies of the of wisconsin application questions full text are available from DSpace@MIT or the MIT Libraries' Document Services.
Abstracts should be no longer than 350 words; longer abstracts will be edited by UMI/ProQuest. Please complete the UMI/ProQuest form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/umi-proquest-form.pdf, staple it to cesar contest winners a copy of your title page and abstract, and submit it with your thesis. The form may printed and completed by hand or opened and filled out in Acrobat Reader, then printed. When filling out the form, choose the appropriate subject categories from the list provided with the form. Please take care both in choosing terms and writing them (if filling out the university of wisconsin essay questions form by hand). Subject-based access to writing opportunities listserv your thesis will depend on the accuracy of the information you provide and the precision with which it is transcribed by university of wisconsin system application UMI/ProQuest. It is especially important that your name appear on writing this form exactly as it does on the title page and abstract of your thesis.
CHANGES AFTER SUBMISSION OF THESIS. All change made to a thesis, after the thesis has been submitted to the MIT Libraries by the student's department, must have prior approval from the university of wisconsin system application essay Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education. When the purpose is to reflective correct significant errors in content, the university of wisconsin questions student should create an errata sheet using the form and instructions at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/errata-sheet.pdf and obtain approval from cesar both thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. If the university system purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the student should fill out the application form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/page-substitution.pdf and cesar contest winners, have the request approved by the thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Students and supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible.
Students receiving advanced degrees from MIT are required to pay a library processing fee: $115.00 for a doctoral thesis ($50 for processing and $65 for the UMI/ProQuest abstract fee) and $50.00 for all other advanced-degree theses. Undergraduate students do not pay a processing fee. Thesis charges are billed to university essay questions the student€™s account when the thesis title is entered on the degree application. Please refer to the academic calendar on essay reflective the Registrar€™s website to review relevant deadline dates. All copies must be submitted to the student€™s department unbound between cardboard covers; the university system thesis and covers should be clipped or tied together, NOT stapled or punched. Recycled temporary covers and binder clips are available in a cabinet in the first floor stairwell of Hayden Library, near the circulation desk. Writing Opportunities. The front cover should be labeled with the following information: author's name, thesis title, course, month and university application questions, year of graduation, and which copy it is (first, second, or third). The MIT Libraries pay for the binding of theses retained in their collection. Personal copies may be bound in hard or soft cover at MIT CopyTech or many commercial binderies in the Boston area.
The Institute's policy concerning ownership of thesis copyright is papers on cyber, covered in Rules and Regulations of the Faculty , 2.73. (http://web.mit.edu/faculty/governance/rules/2.70.html) and MIT Policies and application, Procedures 13.1.3 (http://web.mit.edu/policies/13/13.1.html#sub3). The following are guidelines to assist the student in determining who holds ownership of the thesis copyright: The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to learning reflective theses if: the thesis research is of wisconsin system questions, performed in whole or in part by cesar contest the student with financial support in the form of wages, salary, stipend, or grant from funds administered by system questions the Institute. the thesis research is performed in whole or in part utilizing equipment or facilities provided to the Institute under conditions that impose copyright restrictions.. In general, students may retain ownership of thesis copyrights when the only form of support is is logic, (a) teaching assistantships (the duties of which do not include research activities) and (b) NSF and NIH traineeships and fellowships (although the trainee or fellow may be required to grant certain publishing rights to application essay NSF or NIH). Actual determination of a student's status is made by dissertation reference to the account from which the student receives support. Questions regarding restrictions imposed on university system questions any of the Institute's facilities or equipment may be addressed to term paper on forrest gump the administrative officer of the laboratory or department or to the appropriate contract administrator in the Office of Sponsored Programs (http://osp.mit.edu/).
Specific questions on permission to copyright should be referred to the Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, email@example.com). When copyright ownership is held by university of wisconsin essay the student, the student must, as condition of a degree award, grant royalty-free permission to the Institute to on forrest gump reproduce and publicly distribute copies of the university application essay questions thesis, and must place the cesar essay winners following legend on of wisconsin system essay the thesis title page: The author hereby grants to on forrest gump MIT permission to essay reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of creative writing this thesis document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created. For such theses, requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to and granted by the student author. When copyright is of wisconsin, held by the Institute, students and third parties should contact the term paper gump MIT Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, firstname.lastname@example.org) to obtain permission to system application reuse thesis content in other publications. However, the student is essay reflective, authorized to university system application questions post electronic versions of the student€™s own thesis, in whole or in part, on the World Wide Web.
Any further publication of the thesis in whole or in part shall be made only with the authorization of the Technology Licensing Office, in essay, consultation with the head of the department or course in which the student was registered when the thesis was accepted. Regardless of university system application essay questions whether copyright is held by the student or the Institute, the MIT Libraries publish the thesis electronically in DSpace@MIT (http://dspace.mit.edu) allowing open access viewing and limited downloading/ printing. Students may request a waiver of Institute copyright by written application to the Institute's Technology Licensing Office (http://tlo.mit.edu/). The waiver shall be granted only if the retained rights of the student as described in this guide are inadequate for and critical thinking, the student€™s needs and if a license from the Institute to university of wisconsin the student would also be inadequate. Any such waiver of the Institute€™s copyright shall be subject to a royalty-free grant from the student to the Institute to publicly distribute copies of the thesis, in whole or in part. The student must also place the legend above on the thesis title page.
Implementation: How to Copyright a Thesis. Each student should place the appropriate copyright notice on the thesis. What And Critical Thinking. Copyright notice consists of system essay four elements: the symbol c with a circle around it © and/or the word copyright, the year of publication (the year in cesar chavez essay contest winners, which the degree is to be awarded), the system application questions name of the copyright owner, and the words All rights reserved. These four elements should appear together on the title page (or verso of the title page). student is copyright owner: © 2008 Jane Doe. All rights reserved. Institute is copyright owner: © 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved. See sample title pages.
A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material (e.g., DVD or CD) included with a thesis. Use of Previously Published Material in a Thesis. Each student is responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in the thesis. This applies to most third-party materials (i.e., those created and published by someone else); it may also apply to the student€™s own previous work. If, for example, a student has already published part of the thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned title to the journal's publisher, the what student has no further rights in the article. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to university system application essay include the article, or any portion of it, in the thesis. Similarly, permission must be obtained to include papers written while the student was employed by essay papers on cyber a commercial company or non-profit organization if title belongs to university of wisconsin system application questions the company or organization. A sample permission letter can be obtained from the Office of the General Counsel (https://ogc.mit.edu/frequently-asked-questions). If the student knows, prior to publication or employment, that such material will be included in a thesis, he or she may wish to retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to essay papers on cyber bullying use the material. Further information is available at Scholarly Publishing @MIT Libraries (http://libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/) or by contacting email@example.com for more information.
POLICY FOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESES. Thesis research should be undertaken in light of MIT's policy of university system application questions open research and the free interchange of information. Written notification of patent holds and other restrictions must reach the Institute Archives before the thesis in question is received, since under normal circumstances all theses are open and available for public inspection once they have been received by the Archives. When there is good reason for delaying the distribution of a thesis, the procedures below should be followed. For additional details on procedures for temporary restrictions, please see Graduate Policies and Procedures at http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/restrictions-on-thesis-publication/. When MIT holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office (http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/) to determine if a patent application is to be filed. If so, the Technology Licensing Office will notify the Institute Archives, and on forrest, the thesis will be withheld from of wisconsin application essay questions distribution for up to three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research, who will inform the Archives if an extension is approved.
When a student holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in his or her thesis, application for permission to withhold a thesis must be made to the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for cell, undergraduate theses. System Application Essay. If the hold is granted, the dean will inform the Archives, and the thesis will be withheld for a period of three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research. A student should not embark without prior approval on a thesis that requires government restrictions. Chavez Essay Winners. The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Occasionally, on completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the system privacy or safety of the author, other individuals, or organizations. If the thesis cannot be rewritten to remove the problematic material, the term on forrest gump author and supervisor should submit the thesis to the director of the program, who will prepare a recommendation for the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses, who will then consult with the Vice President for Research. The appropriate office will advise the Institute Archives of the restricted period. In all cases the restricted period should be kept to a minimum.
The title page is of wisconsin application essay, always considered to be page 1, and every page must be included in the count regardless of whether a number is physically printed on a page. The entire thesis (including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and all text and appendices) must be paginated in essay reflective, one consecutive numbering sequence. Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of every page (starting with the title page and including any pages that have been left blank) must be accounted for in the numbering sequence. Therefore, in a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on the left. Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of of wisconsin application questions every sheet. When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily.
Search engines use the essay on cyber words in university essay questions, the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works. Therefore, be sure to select a title that is a meaningful description of the content of your manuscript; and when possible, use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc., which do not appear on most computer keyboards and essay papers, would make your title more difficult to search. The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of Titanium Silicide [not TiSi 2 ] Films on Silicon Substrates Radiative Decays of the J/Psi [not J/ ψ] to university system Two Pseudoscalar Final States The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and chairman; a photocopy of the signed title page is acceptable for the second copy. The title page should contain the title, name of the author, previous degrees, the degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the degree(s) will be conferred (June, September, or February only), copyright notice, and papers on cyber, appropriate names and signatures. For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to system application essay questions be awarded should appear on the title page. For candidates receiving degrees across departments or programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on essay the title page and the signatures of both department heads/committee chairmen are required. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required. Each thesis offered for a graduate degree must include an questions, abstract, preferably one single-spaced page, but never more than two pages (generally less than 350 words). The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary rather than a lengthy introduction to creative listserv the thesis.
Doctoral abstracts are submitted for inclusion in UMI/ProQuest€™s Dissertation Abstracts International and ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ). Doctoral candidates should keep their abstracts under 350 words. Longer abstracts will be edited and shortened by UMI/ProQuest . Databases such as PQDT provide full-text searching of of wisconsin system application abstracts, so the presence of listserv significant key words in a short abstract will facilitate access. The abstract should immediately follow the essay title page. Biographical Note and Acknowledgment. Although not a requirement, each thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of attendance, degrees and honors, titles of publications, teaching and professional experience, and other matters that may be pertinent. An acknowledgment page may also be included. Reflective. These sections may be single-spaced. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT, which is regularly crawled and indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.. The style of quotations, footnotes, and application questions, bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department. If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and be consistent.
Further information is available on essay the web site of the of wisconsin system application MIT Writing Center (http://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/citation-formats/). NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES. Whenever possible, notes should be placed at term paper the bottom of the appropriate page or in the body of the text. Notes should conform to the style appropriate to university system application essay questions the discipline. If notes appear at the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and included within the specified margins (see section below). It may be appropriate to place bibliographic references either at the end of the chapter in which they occur or at the end of the what and critical thinking thesis.. The same paper size and quality, pagination, margins, notes, and illustration requirements apply to appendices. They support the research in your thesis and should be as readable and reproducible as the rest of your work. Page numbering should continue the consecutive pagination of the thesis. For the application essay main body of the text, including appendices and front matter, font size should be at least 11-point and should not be script or italic.
Italics may, however, be used for short quotations or to on cyber highlight variables in an equation, for university of wisconsin system, example. Notes and what and critical, the text in tables, etc., should not be smaller than 10-point. Top, bottom, and both side margins must be at least an inch wide (1) to allow for binding and of wisconsin essay, trimming. Essay On Cyber. All information (text headings, notes, and illustrations), excluding page numbers , must be within the of wisconsin text area. Theses should be prepared using both sides of the paper (double-sided) whenever possible. Oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in during the binding procedure. The text of the thesis may be single- double- or one-and-a-half-spaced.
The abstract, biography, notes, bibliography, and acknowledgment should be single-spaced. If you are writing your thesis on Athena, follow the formatting and typeface instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers on any Athena workstation. If you are preparing your thesis on Athena, follow the papers on cyber instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers. When using Athena templates, be sure the format conforms to the required specifications, especially for the title page and pagination. Final copies should be printed on the printer Thesis (11-004), which is stocked with acid-neutral, Libraries-approved thesis paper. First copy: For the first copy the system application paper must be chosen for its permanence and reflective, durability. This is the copy that should bear the original signatures. Of Wisconsin Application Essay. The paper must be (a) acid€‘neutral or acid-free, (b) watermarked, (c) at least 20-lb. Opportunities Listserv. weight, and (d) contain at system questions least 25% cotton. It may contain some post-consumer waste (pcw) recycled material. The following 20€‘lb. watermarked acid€‘neutral papers are examples of those that are acceptable. Mohawk Via Bright White (available at CopyTech, 11-004) Xerox Image Elite Crane's Thesis Paper Hammermill Bond Strathmore Bond.
Second copy: The paper for the second copy should be (a) acid-neutral or acid-free, (b) at least 20-lb. weight, and creative opportunities listserv, (c) contain 25% cotton. It need not be watermarked. The following are not acceptable for either copy: MIT bond, erasable paper, or regular paper from photocopy machines. University Of Wisconsin Application Essay. The paper used should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other. Cell Dissertation. If there are any questions about the acceptability of university of wisconsin system application questions paper, contact the Institute Archives (firstname.lastname@example.org, 617-253-5136). The standard size for theses is bullying, 8˝ by 11 inches (see section on oversized pages). DOUBLE-SIDED OR SINGLE-SIDED PRINTING. Double-sided printing is strongly recommended. However, the paper should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other side.
A single-sided illustration page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. When creating a double-sided copy, be sure that the page numbers are either in the center or on the outside edge of each page. Charts, graphs, tables, etc., should be reduced whenever possible to university system application essay questions an 8˝-by-11-inch format. If material is not reducible, oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in during the what is logic binding procedure. Acceptable 11-by-17-inch watermarked paper can be requested at CopyTech (11-004). Students may print their theses in full color. Theses containing color figures, illustrations, and photos will be scanned in color and converted to color PDFs for inclusion in DSpace@MIT.
Please be aware that heavily saturated color graphics may €śbleed through€ť and compromise legibility for double-sided pages. In such cases, use of single-sided printing or heavier, less transparent paper stock is advised.. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. Of Wisconsin System Essay. A single-sided photograph page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on essay both sides. All graphics must respect the 1€ť margins. Digital and magnetic materials such as cassette tapes, CDs, and DVDs may accompany the university of wisconsin application essay written text of the thesis; one should accompany each copy of the creative listserv thesis submitted . No guarantee can be given that the Libraries can preserve, reproduce, or make this information available in the future. Application Essay. Therefore, when feasible, the information that is in these forms should also be represented in the written text of the thesis. A label containing the author's name, the date of the thesis, and the copyright notice must be applied to all material in non-paper format. The label should also include any relevant technical information, such as software or hardware specifications.
Is the author€™s full name on the title page and the abstract? (See sections on paper title page and abstract.) Before submitting to your department. Are all necessary signatures on the title page of each copy? (See section on essay questions title page ) Institute Archives and creative writing listserv, Special Collections. Technology Licensing Office. One Cambridge Center. Cambridge, MA 02142.
Office of the General Counsel. Office of the Dean for university essay questions, Graduate Education. Dean for reflective, Undergraduate Education. Office of the Vice President for Research. Prepared by the MIT Libraries.
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combat medic resume Photograph above by Renan Ozturk. The wind slams into me, and I desperately grip my ice axes to keep from being ripped off the mountain face. I push my head against university system application essay questions, the snow, calm myself, and look down. Beneath my crampons is a 5,000-foot drop. It’s like looking down from the open door of an airplane. I am roped to my two companions, with nothing attaching us to essay papers bullying, the mountain. A fall here would send all three of us plummeting to our death.
When the wind subsides, I pound an aluminum stake into the snow and clip the rope to university of wisconsin system, it. It wouldn’t hold if I were to term on forrest gump, fall but gives me enough psychological comfort to continue. I concentrate, methodically swinging my ice tools and kicking my crampons. At a rock rampart I place an anchor and belay my partners, Cory Richards and Renan Ozturk, across the chasm. “Nice lead, dude!” Cory shouts above the roar of the of wisconsin application wind when he arrives. He climbs onward, slanting left, searching for and critical, a passage up through the granite and snow.
When Renan reaches me, there is university of wisconsin essay questions, no room on my ledge, so he traverses out to creative listserv, his own perch. Cory carefully tiptoes the teeth of his crampons along a thin ledge above us and essay disappears from sight. Renan and I wait, hunched against the wind. We stomp our feet and painfully slap our gloved hands. Paper. We are too far apart to talk. We just stand there, together but alone, on the side of the university system application questions snow-plastered cliff more than three miles in the sky. After a half hour we begin to freeze. Term. After an hour we can no longer feel our fingers or toes. “I can’t take it anymore,” Renan yells through his frozen beard. “My feet are gone. I have to start moving.” We don’t know what Cory is doing above us, but we’re so cold it doesn’t matter.
Renan starts climbing, then I follow. We’re all still roped together, so it’s crucial that none of us fall. The rope is supposed to of wisconsin application, be secured to the mountain to catch a fall, but mortal predicaments like this happen often in essay winners mountaineering. When there are no good anchors, your partners become your anchors, physically and emotionally. You must trust your life to of wisconsin system application, their judgment and ability, and they entrust their lives to yours. This is the code of the mountains. Stretched to the limit, the teamwhich included (left to right) videographer Renan Ozturk, author Mark Jenkins, photographer Cory Richards, climber Emily Harrington, and essay expedition leader Hilaree O’Neillbegan running low on food on the hike out. University Of Wisconsin Essay Questions. “None of us anticipated we’d get that strung out,” says Cory. Renan and what and critical I halt in university of wisconsin application a small rock recess overlooking the north face of the mountain.
Through blowing spindrift we can see Cory traversing another expanse of snow. It is too dangerous for Renan and essay learning reflective me to keep moving. Again, we must wait. We huddle close, but we’re still freezing. System Essay Questions. The wind swirls around our bodies, howling and biting at creative writing, us like invisible hyenas. “My feet are turnaround cold,” Renan says. What he means is that they’re close to frostbite. I wonder, for at least the tenth time on this expedition, whether this is the end of our quest to university application questions, climb the highest peak in Myanmara journey that has pushed us to our physical and emotional limits. Far below us on the mountain, our other team members are pulling for us in spirit. Our base camp manager, Taylor Rees, is at is logic and critical, the foot of the university of wisconsin system application essay questions mountain. The previous day we left Hilaree O’Neill and essay reflective Emily Harrington at camp 3, a tent nested on a snowy ridgeline, where our weary team had a bitter argument over who would try for the summit.
I tell Renan to take off his boots and place his feet underneath my down parka, against my chest. He has socks on, and my chest isn’t exactly a furnace, but it’s the best we can do. When Cory makes his way around a rock buttress, we start moving. System Application Questions. An hour passes before we finally regroup on a thin ledge. Our immediate goal remains far above usthe crest of the essay reflective west ridge, glistening like the edge of a sword.
“My lead,” Renan says. He begins climbing, woodenly kicking his crampons into the snow. He disappears into the sun. The rope tightens, and Cory takes off. After he vanishes, I follow. When I reach the ridge and push my ice-crusted face into the sun, it’s like poking my head into heaven. The sudden warmth renews my hope. I pull my body onto the ridge, and a blanket of sunlight envelops me. After the of wisconsin application essay dark, soul-sucking cold of the winners north face, it feels like rebirth. Renan and Cory have dropped over the ridge to application essay, get out term on forrest gump of the university of wisconsin system wind and discovered a stone platform hanging above the what thinking south face. The sun is spread over the rock like honey. “Lunch ledge!” I bellow, christening our aerie.
Within minutes I’ve got our tiny stove roaring. University. Renan takes off his boots and is logic begins rubbing his toes. Cory gets out his camera and begins snapping pictures. After more than a week of university, climbing, this is the first time we can actually see the summit: a steep, shining pyramid of snow. But we can also see what we have left to climb: a menacing, serrated ridge of rock and snow, guarded by a dozen dagger-like pinnacles. “Let’s do an old-school adventure,” Hilaree had said, “an expedition to contest, someplace still remote and unknown.” It was the spring of university of wisconsin system application essay, 2012, and we were coming off Mount Everest. Hilaree is the toughest woman I’ve ever met. After summiting Everest, she climbed its neighbor, Lhotse, with two torn ligaments in her ankle. We had a lot in common. Both of us had grown up loving mountains.
We were both married with two kids and trying to find a way to balance family life with expeditions. Learning. And we were both disillusioned by Everest’s commercialism and crowds. Of Wisconsin. We needed to get back to what made us climbers to begin with. But finding someplace truly remote is tricky. A plane will take you to the North or South Pole, you can hop a helicopter to the base camp of Everest or Makalu, tourist boats cruise the on forrest gump Nile and the Amazon. Real remotenesssomewhere that requires days or even weeks of walking just to essay questions, reachhas almost vanished from Earth. And yet I knew a place, a mountain that had long held me in its thrall.
But because of my private history with it, I was reluctant to say anything. Eventually, after bouncing ideas back and forthPakistan, Papua New Guinea, Kazakhstanmy enthusiasm got the best of me. “What about,” I hesitated, “Hkakabo Razi?” Hkakabo Razi (pronounced KA-kuh-bo RAH-zee) is said to be the highest peak in essay papers on cyber Southeast Asia. It is a jagged massif of black rock and white glaciers that rises improbably out of the university steaming green jungles of papers bullying, northern Myanmar. Located just beyond the eastern edge of the Himalaya, on the border with Tibet, it was first measured by a British survey published in 1925 at 19,296 feet high. It is a peak so remote, few climbers have heard of it even today. Getting to the mountain would require a two-week trek through dense jungle riven with plunging gorges and inhabited by venomous snakes. Hilaree was hooked immediately. University System Application Essay Questions. We were planning our expedition before we left Kathmandu.
I had learned of Hkakabo in the 1980s, when I picked up a yellowed copy of Burma’s Icy Mountains by British explorer Francis Kingdon-Ward. It described his 1937 expedition into the region and his audacious attempt to climb Hkakabo Razi solo. He reached almost 16,000 feet before being stymied by an insurmountable “granite wall … beyond my powers.” The Rawang were not immune to the vagaries of the jungle. A toddler was brought to us with infected insect bites. A tribal elder told me, “Everyone here either gets better on their own or dies.” Kingdon-Ward’s “powers,” as I learned from reading his many other books, were protean.
A brilliant botanist, lyrical writer, indefatigable plant hunter, and purportedly a British spy, Kingdon-Ward was one of those hard-as-iron adventurers in the mold of polar voyager Roald Amundsen or Amazonian explorer Percy Fawcett. Kingdon-Ward could tramp through jungle for creative writing listserv, months on rice and tea, writing in his journal at night beside a campfire. Of Wisconsin Essay Questions. From 1909 to 1956, he made more than 20 expeditions into Central Asia, during which he survived a fall off a cliff and one of the century’s worst earthquakes. Along the way he collected hundreds of plants and named many, including species of rhododendrons and lilies that now adorn gardens worldwide. I was entranced by Kingdon-Ward’s journeys and was determined to creative opportunities listserv, make the first ascent of of wisconsin questions, Hkakabo Razi. So in the fall of 1993, I enlisted my climbing buddies Steve Babits, Mike Moe, and essay learning reflective Keith Spencer. We called ourselves the Wyoming Alpine Club. Mike had been my best friend since high school in university of wisconsin system essay questions Laramie, and I’d met Keith and Steve at and critical thinking, the University of Wyoming. Since then, Mike and I had done several first ascents in the Rockies and the first kayak descent of the application essay Niger River in West Africa. At that time the military junta controlling Burmalater renamed Myanmarhad declared the north off-limits to on cyber, foreigners.
We naively planned to system essay questions, avoid this obstacle by accessing the mountain from papers bullying Tibet, illegally crossing the border, traveling light and fast with no porters. We flew to Lhasa with our rucksacks and proceeded to sneak across eastern Tibetalso closed to university of wisconsin system essay, foreignershitching rides in the backs of papers, trucks and talking our way past checkpoints. It took more than a month just to get near the university of wisconsin essay base of the mountain. Mike and Steve had to return home, leaving only Keith and me to climb. We ran out of food on the north side of Hkakabo and had to descend to a Tibetan village. There we were promptly arrested by essay reflective the Chinese military, interrogated, and jailed. University Of Wisconsin System Essay Questions. We signed a four-page confession of “misconduct” and were deported. Two years later, to my chagrin, the Myanmar government granted Japanese mountaineer Takashi Ozaki permission to climb Hkakabo Razi. Ozaki was an contest winners unstoppable Himalayan veteran, having made the first full ascent of the north face of Everest in of wisconsin system application 1980. (He would die climbing there in 2011.) He made two failed attempts on Hkakabo in 1995, but in September 1996, after two months of climbing, Ozaki summited with Tibetan-born mountaineer Nyima Gyaltsen. He told the chavez winners Asia Times, “I can say absolutely that Hkakabo Razi is one of the most difficult and dangerous mountains in of wisconsin system the world.
I was never scared before, like this time.” Ozaki published a detailed account of his expedition, but he did not measure the summit elevation with a GPS, which left the creative writing mountain’s exact height undetermined. The climbers hired a caravan of motorcycles in the northern town of Putao to transport their gear and supplies across Kachin state. Of Wisconsin Questions. They rode for three days before the wet and muddy route became passable only on foot. Young and convinced of our invincibility, Mike, Keith, and I talked about on cyber, returning to Hkakabo. University Of Wisconsin Application. (Steve had moved on to different adventures.) But it was not to be. Mike died on an expedition in contest winners 1995, along with his brother and two others. A bowhead whale tipped over their boat in university system application the Arctic Ocean, and they all perished from hypothermia. Mike left behind a wife and three kids. None of us ever quite recovered.
Still, Keith and I continued doing expeditions and often ice climbed together. On January 2, 2009, we were on the fifth pitch of an icefall in essay papers bullying north Wyoming. I was belaying him from a small alcove in the ice. He was cheerfully climbing 15 feet below me when we heard a deafening roar. A section of ice above us had cut loose. Seconds later tons of ice crashed down. Keith was killed, his neck broken by the impact. There was no reason why I lived and Keith died. We’d taken the of wisconsin system application essay questions safety precautions.
He didn’t do anything wrong, and I didn’t do anything to save myself. There was no moral, aside from the inescapable truth that mountains are dangerous, and occasionally inflict horror and sorrow on those who dare to contest, climb them. Lounging on our lunch ledge in the sun on Hkakabo Razi, slurping down hot noodles with Cory and Renan, I am reminded of my lost friends. Mike was funny like Cory, who’s kept us going through some of the trip’s worst moments with perfectly timed wisecracks. Keith was quiet like Renan, always taking in the grandeur around him, always the university essay calm voice in the midst of fuel, crisis. During these past weeks I’ve spent with Cory and Renan, it’s been a bit like looking back in time at myself and my dead friends. I recognize in university system essay questions these two younger men the same passion for climbing mountains, the chavez contest winners same determined toughness, the same boundless ambition, and at moments the same sense of being bulletproof that Mike, Keith, and I had 22 years ago.
Our resolve replenished, we begin to study the crenellated ridge before us that leads to university of wisconsin questions, the summit. Because the is logic and critical mountain has remained largely unexplored, we are climbing with little knowledge of the terrain. Even satellite images don’t reveal the true difficulty of the climb. Of Wisconsin System Application. From the lunch ledge, the route ahead looks more demanding than what we’ve encountered so far. Along their 151-mile jungle trek, the team stayed in the homes of cell dissertation fuel, local Rawang who live in Myanmar’s far north. Unlike Nepal, where commercial climbing is well established, the people here encounter few foreign mountaineers. Hkakabo’s west ridge is a two-mile-long saw bladea series of stone towers separated by sharp cols of snow. Unlike on some mountains, where you can shoot right up to the summit, we have been climbing up and down the jagged ridgeline the whole wayup a tooth of rock, rappelling down the backside, balancing across a bridge of snow, then up the next craggy pinnacle. We try to identify a potential route, but the spiked ridge weaves like a serpent’s tail so we can’t see all the university of wisconsin application essay questions obstacles. We do, however, spot a notch that looks like the best location to bivouac for the night.
We pack up and start moving, trying to cesar chavez essay contest winners, stay on the sunny side of the of wisconsin application essay ridge. It takes us four hours to reach the notch. We are so fatigued that we can barely stomp out a tent platform. Creative Opportunities. Our faces are rimed with ice from university application essay questions breathing so hard. While trying to term gump, shove the university application essay questions poles into dissertation fuel our tent, the wind lifts it like a kite. We throw in of wisconsin system our packs, guy it down, and term paper pile inside. “The shiver bivvy begins,” says Cory as he zips the tent, closing off the screeching blackness that has descended on the mountain. We knew this night was going to be misery.
At camp 3 we could see that the ridge became technical and treacherous. So we ruthlessly cut the weight of our packs, bringing only bare essentials, hoping it would be enough to application essay questions, get us to the top and back down. Bullying. We left our winter sleeping bags and carried only the thin overbag shells. We have one stove, one fuel bottle, one pot, one spoon, two instant pasta meals, and of wisconsin system application essay questions the three of us are crammed into a two-person tent. Sitting knee-to-knee, our backs pressed against the tent, we set our stove on our boots and nearly asphyxiate ourselves boiling water from snow. Dissertation. One person holds the stove, another the pot. We are wearing everything we have.
Only our headlamps and runny noses stick out from beneath the hoods of our parkas. Renan says little, which is normal. But even Cory is university of wisconsin application essay, quiet. We have been sleeping with each other for weeks, like poor brothers in one bed. We know each other’s secrets. I know Renan is dealing with the betrayal of a friend. Essay Reflective. I know Cory’s struggling to stay married and be a world-traveling photographer. They know I’m haunted by memories of my dead friends, that this mountain is my white whale.
My thoughts drift to how close we are to our goal and our team’s ugly fight and the toll it’s taken on university questions my friendship with Hilaree. The past weeks spent with Cory and Renan have been like looking back in time at myself and essay my two dead friends. In these two younger men I see the university of wisconsin application questions same passion for essay learning reflective, climbing, the same sense of being bulletproof we had 22 years ago. Just getting to the foot of Hkakabo Razi took a month. The very thing that Hilaree and I had wished for on the slopes of system application essay questions, Everestremotenesswas the very thing that threatened our expedition from the beginning. First we had to learning reflective, cross most of Myanmar. From Yangon we took an university of wisconsin system application essay questions overnight bus to essay learning reflective, Bagan, then a ferry up the Irrawaddy River to Mandalay, where we got on university of wisconsin system application a train that bucked and swayed as if it would derail at cesar chavez winners, any moment. In Myitkyina we boarded a plane where a fellow passenger checked an university of wisconsin system questions AK-47 as carry-on luggage. On arrival in Putao, the northernmost town in Kachin state, we spent five days “under arrest” while our climbing permits were batted back and forth among officials. Finally, we loaded our gear onto a caravan of motorcycles and set off for three days, crashing through streams and churning through mud until the trail became passable only on is logic thinking foot.
Then began the 151-mile trek to the base of university of wisconsin system application essay questions, Hkakabo through the wet, dark jungle. Dissertation. The dense forest canopy cast a dim green glow. For two weeks we moved along this tunnel-like track, always rising steeply or plunging suddenly, from one local enclave to the next, exactly as Francis Kingdon-Ward had done 77 years earlier. We slept in the bamboo homes built on stilts of the university application essay Rawang people. Although Kachin state is known for its jade and gold mines and for illegal logging, people this far north mainly raise pigs and chickens and grow little plots of rice. On the writing listserv first day trekking in university system application essay questions the jungle Hilaree was almost struck by a snake. She saw it coiled on the trail at the last moment and writing opportunities listserv leaped over it. Poised to of wisconsin application essay questions, strike, the serpent’s flat head floated side to side, its black tongue squirting in and out. We all kept our distance except Cory, who knelt down and began snapping photos. “White-lipped pit viper,” he declared. It was one of a dozen snakes toxinologist Zoltan Takacs had warned us about before we came to cell, Myanmar. If one of us were bitten, the of wisconsin system application venom could cause bleeding from the nose, eyes, gums, and cell dissertation fuel rectum and university application could be fatal.
We carried two antivenoms, one for vipers, the essay reflective other for university of wisconsin application, cobras and kraits, but Takacs had warned us that relying on antivenom in the jungle was dicey. Far less dangerous were the leeches. They would drop down onto our necks as we pushed through wet branches or suck onto our feet and legs during stream crossings. All day we’d pluck their blood-engorged bodies off our skin, leaving bites that didn’t fully heal for weeks. And then there were the spiders. We continually pushed through cobwebs the size of fishing nets. Some held spiders baring fangs so large they were visible from a few feet away. Buddhist prayer flags surround a stupa in Dahongdam, the last village on the jungle trek to the base of Hkakabo. Though Myanmar is 90 percent Buddhist, most communities the team encountered on the route were Christian.
The Rawang were not immune to the vagaries of the jungle. In one village a distraught mother brought a screaming child to us, her tiny body swollen from infected bites. Dissertation Fuel. Hilaree and university application Emily smeared antibiotic cream on her arms, legs, and face. When I asked what would become of the cesar chavez essay contest child, a tribal elder told me, “Everyone here either gets better on their own or dies.” The legs of university essay questions, one of our youngest porters, a schoolgirl of about 12, were so welted with bites that her skin was as bumpy as a toad’s. Cesar Chavez. She was one of three girls of of wisconsin application, similar age whom we shamefully hired, along with their brothers, parents, and cesar chavez essay contest winners grandparents, to carry our gear.
We hired anyone we could find. They all hefted loads with practiced efficiency. We’d recruit porters from one village to help us get to the next village up the questions trail. Some would work for a few days, others just for a few hours. Sometimes they’d abandon us without a word, slipping away in the night. The truth is, we had brought far too much stuffcameras and lighting equipment, laptops, extra batteries, even two drones to get aerial footagethe paraphernalia of paper, a modern expedition. But it was all useless without enough strong backs to carry it. So we began leaving bags of gear in the villages we passed through until we were down to a quarter of our initial load. At almost any other time, we would have encountered plenty of locals along this trail willing to university system essay questions, make $15 a day, twice the local wage. But when we arrived in the fall of 2014, Hkakabo Razi had improbably become front-page news. On September 10, 2014, three weeks before our team left the United States, an Associated Press headline read: “Search for missing climbers begins in Myanmar.” An eight-man, all-Burmese expedition had set out for dissertation, Hkakabo to put one of its citizens atop the country’s highest peak.
It was a matter of national pride. On August 31, after two weeks of climbing, two team members signaled from somewhere near the summit. They were never heard from again. An enormous search effort was mounted. Of Wisconsin Application. Porters were recruited from local villages to supply the search teams. Choppers buzzed over essay learning, the jungle between Putao and university questions the mountain.
Then one of the helicopters, with two pilots and a passenger, disappeared. The search for the climbers was suspended, and a search for writing, the helicopter ensued. Nine days later, the helicopter’s passenger stumbled out of the university of wisconsin application questions jungle and led rescuers to creative listserv, the pilots: One was alive but severely burned, the other dead. After decades of quiet obscurity, Hkakabo Razi had claimed three lives in university of wisconsin system application one month. Porters take a break on a bed of bamboo leaves. In some villages, the cesar essay team hired entire families, even grandparents, to university of wisconsin essay, carry gear. Most were Rawang people who live in remote valleys near the Tibetan border. Another American climbing team was partly behind this sudden Burmese attention to the mountain.
The year before, Andy Tyson, a Teton-based guide, had led an creative opportunities listserv American-Burmese expedition to a neighboring peak called Gamlang Razi. After studying modern Russian topographic maps, as well as images from Google Earth, Tyson had determined that Gamlang might actually be higher than Hkakabo. Tyson’s team made the first ascent of system questions, Gamlang Razi in creative writing listserv September 2013. Using a survey-grade GPS, they measured its height at 19,259 feet. Although this was still 37 feet lower than Hkakabo’s 1925 British survey height of 19,296, it was higher than the 18,671 feet that Russian surveyors had calculated in the 1970s and 1980s. “No one in Burma wanted to believe that Gamlang was higher than Hkakabo,” Tyson told me last year, noting that Hkakabo is a long-revered symbol of national pride, and university of wisconsin application questions a foreigner calling its prominence into question embarrassed some Burmese. (Tragically, Andy Tyson was killed in a plane crash in April.) In fact the Burmese expedition had set out to prove that Hkakabo Razi was still the country’s highest peak. Before disappearing on the upper reaches of the mountain, their ill-fated climbers had transmitted a GPS reading of 18,996 feet.
In my own research, I had contacted Robert Crippen, an Earth scientist for chavez contest, NASA. We discussed the various methods for measuring Gamlang and Hkakabo. “The real bottom line is that errors of university system application essay questions, 30 meters [100 feet] or more might not be evident, and this is chavez essay winners, about the difference in these peaks,” he said. “So we have evidence, but no proof, for of wisconsin application essay, which one is higher.” The highest mountain in Myanmar would remain a mystery until someone stood on the summit of Hkakabo with a GPS. If one of us were to essay learning reflective, slip off the ridge, the university application only way to save his life would be for the next climber on essay on cyber bullying the rope to quickly jump off the opposite side, both men praying in the millisecond that the university system essay questions rope wouldn’t sever. Renan, Cory, and I pass the spoon, each of us gulping down hot soup, while the wind punches at the tent like a boxer working a heavy bag. When the pot has cooled, we hand it around and swill the last of the liquid.
We pack snow inside the pot, put it back on the stove, and chavez contest winners keep melting snow until each of us has a full hot water bottle, which we will sleep with on our chests. It is university of wisconsin system, so cold we would prefer to chavez essay winners, just stay locked together around the purring stove all nightscrew the toxic fumesbut we don’t have enough fuel. We turn off the application essay stove knowing that the next hours will feel like several days. We arrange our ropes and packs underneath ourselves and try to find some way we can all stretch out. If we lie on our sides, it’s just possible. “Nothing I like more than spooning with two really smelly dudes,” Cory quips.
We are so smashed together that none of us can move without elbowing or kneeing each other. We don’t expect to sleep. We expect to suffer. We pull our balaclavas down over our faces like knights closing their visors in preparation for battle. We put our mittens beneath our hips to insulate them against the snow. Renan and I are on the outside, up against the frost-covered tent walls, while skinny Cory is in the middle. It’s like being buried together inside a small tomb. We lie there for hours, each of creative writing, us floating in our own dark thoughts. “I’m freezing,” I say in the black of night. I have been trying to hold it in for a couple of hours.
My back has been against the tent wall for so long the cold has penetrated through to my chest. “I need to of wisconsin questions, start the stove or something.” “Get in the middle, I’ll take the outside,” says Cory. Essay Papers On Cyber. We trade places, and university of wisconsin application questions I don’t get warm, but I don’t get any colder. We stay in writing listserv this position for of wisconsin, as long as we can stand it. In the essay papers on cyber darkest, coldest hour, I start imagining someone finding our bony bodies lined up in the snow like crooked logs. Finally, finally, daybreak comes.
Back in university of wisconsin system application essay questions the jungle, two days before reaching base camp, we met a bone-weary, hollow-eyed Japanese team that was retreating from Hkakabo as if returning from the front lines of an epic battle. We’d heard about papers bullying, them and had been concerned that they’d summit ahead of us, rendering all our efforts meaningless before we even got to see the university of wisconsin mountain. But they’d been delayed by dissertation the rescue of the Burmese climbers. Eventually, they had made their own attempt via the west ridge, which was also the route we intended to of wisconsin system application essay questions, take. Their team leader, Hiro Kuraoka, was injured. He had slipped among the boulders and badly bruised his buttocks. Despite lying in a sleeping bag with a bulging hematoma on his backside, Hiro was animated and generous, explaining their route in detail and showing us numerous photos of the papers on cyber bullying topography from various camps. He said they had been stopped several hundred feet from the university of wisconsin application essay questions summit by what and critical thinking a razor’s edge of system application, snow and sharp, insurmountable pinnacles. Like two military platoons passing in the night, we exchanged supplies.
We gave Hiro a bottle of ibuprofen, and he gave us stove fuel and ropes. His team was defeated but alive, which in the end is all that really matters. After nearly two weeks of trekking, we finally climbed out of the fetid jungle onto the rising southern flank of Hkakabo. Cell Dissertation. The tropical humidity gave way to a bracing alpine mist, and we dug into our bags for fleeces and down jackets. Questions. We’d all lost weight and were tired from the arduous trek. And we were running out of time. In planning the expedition, we had agreed to be home by Thanksgiving.
In Kingdon-Ward’s time, the end point of an expedition was rarely based on on forrest gump a preset date, but in our modern age, time is the least available commodity. We had just 10 days before we had to begin our hike out. I knew Ozaki had needed 25 days from base camp to climb the mountain. Blocked by tooth-like rock spires, Mark turns back from the of wisconsin system questions ridge leading to Hkakabo’s snowy summit. To go on, the team would’ve had to spend a night without food, a tent, or sleeping bags. “We’d have lost digits, if not our lives,” says Cory. Over the next week, we put in three camps up the spine of the west ridge, but under time pressure and faced with the difficulty of the terrain, relations among the team were fraying. I was especially concerned when Hilaree reached camp 2 dangerously hypothermic. We got her warm, but it was a cautionary moment. The next day, climbing to camp 3, neither Emily nor Hilaree appeared comfortable on the steep, exposed faces of ice and snow and moved slowly. In retrospect we should have expected this slower pace.
Emily is papers bullying, a national sport-climbing champion but had little experience climbing this kind of mixed terrain. Hilaree is university of wisconsin system questions, a renowned ski mountaineer with some challenging alpine climbing expeditions on her resume. Writing Opportunities. But Cory, Renan, and I have deeper backgrounds in this type of environment. Of Wisconsin Essay. Cory had been the first American to summit Pakistan’s 26,362-foot Gasherbrum II in winterand survived an avalanche in term paper the process. Renan had been part of the team that summited India’s 20,702-foot Meru Central via the Shark’s Fin, a brutal climb many thought impossible. And over 35 years of climbing, I’d done first ascents in Antarctica and the Rockies, Alps, and Himalaya. These experiences didn’t change any of the inherent dangers, but it did mean we three were able to move faster and implicitly trust each other with our lives as we tried for the summit. That night, at camp 3, Renan and Cory both privately expressed concerns about climbing any farther with the university of wisconsin system questions entire team. We spent the next day in our tents acclimatizing, and there was no way around the painful conversation. In his soft-spoken way, Renan noted that the climbing was going to get more dangerous.
It was also pointed out that three people moving fast had the best chance of summiting in term on forrest the brief time we had left. Emily readily agreed that she was in over her head. But Hilaree was deeply offended and insisted that she should go for the summit. I explained it was an issue of safety for the whole team, but Hilaree was wounded. “I’m going to system application essay questions, say one thing,” she said, her voice welling with emotion as she left the tent, “[Expletive] you, Mark, for the vote of what thinking, confidence.” This expedition was sponsored by a grant from National Geographic’s Expeditions Council and The North Face. Nothing is more damning in the mountains than hubris, yet hubris is fundamental to university of wisconsin essay, climbing mountains.
All serious mountaineers possess big egos. You cannot take on the risks and cell fuel constant suffering of big mountains without one. We may talk like Buddhists, but don’t be fooled, we’re actually narcissistsdriven, single-minded, masochistic narcissists. Nearly all of us, on some mountain at some time, have defied logic and refused to turn around, as Hilaree was doing now. Some of us have been lucky enough to survive those misguided moments. This may sound harsh, but I’m at a season in university of wisconsin application my climbing career where openness and honesty trump polite silence, even with my friends. We were all weary, light-headed from the thin air, and fearful of cell, what lay ahead, and university of wisconsin system essay the conversations over the next hours devolved into shouting, accusations, and recriminations. Eventually, Cory couldn’t stand the rancor and term gump said Hilaree could take his place on the summit team. Renan and I were concerned but reluctantly agreed to university of wisconsin questions, the new plan. At three the next morning, as we began to rope up, with a freezing Tibetan wind howling, Hilaree made the paper correct decision.
She said it was too cold for her, reasoning that if she had a second bout with hypothermia, she might endanger the team. University Of Wisconsin System Application. She told Cory to go instead. “Why do we do this?” Cory asks, struggling like a contortionist to cell dissertation, put his boots on university of wisconsin essay inside the tiny tent. “Really! Why?” His hands are too numb to tie the laces. “Because it’s so much fun,” Renan says drily, pressing his elbows against the snapping tent walls. After 39 days of cell dissertation fuel, boats and essay trains, snakes and leeches; after clawing up the sheer faces of Hkakabo’s west ridge; today is summit day. We each take slugs of writing opportunities, steaming tea until the of wisconsin system application pot’s empty, then reluctantly crawl out of the tent into the battering wind. Spindrift is whirling around us. And Critical Thinking. The sun is a distant cold ball. We click on our crampons, rope up, and start climbing. University Application Essay. Our feet and fingers are numb, but moving beats trembling in the tent. Our blood starts pumping, and warmth gradually returns to our cores.
All serious mountaineers have big egos. You cannot take on essay papers on cyber the risks and constant suffering of big mountains without one. We may talk like Buddhists, but don’t be fooled, we’re actually hard-driving narcissists. Together we traverse the university of wisconsin application essay questions first of a series of large rock spires. Papers. To either side, a mile below us, is an ocean of clouds. If one of us were to slip off the lance-like ridge, the only way to save his life would be for the next climber on the rope to quickly throw himself off the opposite side, both men praying in the millisecond of potential oblivion that the rope isn’t pulled taut over a knife-sharp rock and severed. This is the depth of trust required in mountain climbing.
This is how you transcend yourself and bond with your climbing partners. It is the reason we climb. We gather on university essay questions a little point of snow to reassess. “I’m scared,” Cory says. “I’m really [expletive] scared. I think we should turn around.” His naked honesty is strangely comforting. He’s saying what we all feel. But Renan and creative I aren’t ready to university of wisconsin system essay, turn back.
I lead down around a snowcapped block, up through a narrow hallway between two slabs of rock, hook along a crescent of snow, and suddenly the entire route to the summit appears before me. I am aghast. We knew we had one more deep notch in the ridge to negotiate, but I see now that it is filled with massive stone teeth, like the jawbone of a dinosaur. What Is Logic. It would take us hours, well into the night, to climb through this wind-gnashed maw. To summit would require another night on the mountain, but this time without a tent, stove, food, or water. We would be perched on a ledge on the side of the mountain in the wind in the dark, and we would freeze to death. It is the point of no return.
I realize we will not reach the top. We will not measure the height of Hkakabo Razi. We will not solve the mystery of Myanmar’s tallest mountain. Questions. I have been carrying a photo of Mike Moe and Keith Spencer for the entire expedition. Papers Bullying. In it, Mike and Keith are standing on a mountain wearing puffy down coats, helmets, and wide grins. I so fiercely wanted to place this picture on the summit. But it is university of wisconsin system application essay questions, not to be.
I paw out dissertation fuel a little hole and place the photo in the snow. I take a GPS reading at our high point, 18,841 feet, then climb slowly back along the ridge to Renan and Cory. They already know our expedition is over. All we want now is to get down alive.