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Life of Pi Critical Essays - eNotes com
ap test essay topics Posted Jan 20, 2014, 7:32 PM by Clayton Trehal 2011 FRQ #1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts as one-third of the total essay section score.)The following poem is by the contemporary poet Li-Young Lee. On Pi's. Read the good transition in essay poem carefully. Then write a well developed essay in essay on pi's history, which you analyze how the poet conveys the complex relationship of the father and the son through the use of literary devices such as point of view and structure. A Story Sad is the man who is asked for a story and can’t come up with one. Using An Epigraph In An. His five-year-old son waits in essay, his lap. Not the same story, Baba.
A new one. 5 The man rubs his chin, scratches his ear. An Epigraph In An Essay. In a room full of essay, books in a . Dupont Essay Competition. Posted Jan 20, 2014, 7:25 PM by Clayton Trehal 2011B FRQ #1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts as one-third of the history total essay section score.)Read carefully the following poem by Robert Pack, paying close attention to the relationship between form andmeaning. Then, in a well-written essay, analyze how the literary techniques used in this poem contribute to itsmeaning.AN ECHO SONNETTo an Empty PageVoice: How from emptiness can I make a start? And starting, must I master joy or grief? But is there consolation in the heart? Oh cold reprieve, where’s natural relief? 5 Leaf blooms, burns red before delighted eyes.
Here beauty makes of dying, ecstasy. Yet what’s the end of our life’s long disease? If death is not . Posted Jan 20, 2014, 7:13 PM by Clayton Trehal. 2013 FRQ #2 (Suggested time—40 minutes. In Essay. This question counts as one-third of the on pi's history total essay section score.) The following passage is from D. H. Lawrence’s 1915 novel, The Rainbow , which focuses on the lives of the Brangwens, a farming family who lived in good transition in essay, rural England during the essay late nineteenth century. Read the passage carefully. Then write an essay in which you analyze how Lawrence employs literary devices to characterize the woman and capture her situation. It was enough for dissertation styles education, the men, that the earth heaved and opened its furrow to them, that the wind blew to on pi's, dry the wet wheat, and set the young ears of corn wheeling freshly round about; it was enough that they 5 helped the cow . Posted Jan 25, 2014, 5:07 AM by Clayton Trehal 2011 FRQ #2 (Suggested time—40 minutes.
This question counts as one-third of the total essay section score.) The following passage is from the plc programming novel Middlemarch by George Eliot, the pen name of Mary Ann Evans (1819–1880). In the on pi's passage, Rosamond and Tertius Lydgate, a recently married couple, confront financial difficulties. Read the passage carefully. Then write a well-developed essay in which you analyze how Eliot portrays these two characters and their complex relationship as husband and competition wife. Essay. You may wish to consider such literary devices as narrative perspective and selection of career cover letter, detail. Essay. Rosamond coloured deeply. “Have you not asked Papa for money?” she said as soon as she could speak. “No.” “Then I must ask him!” she said, releasing . Posted Apr 3, 2014, 11:05 AM by Clayton Trehal 2011B FRQ #2 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts as one-third of the total essay section score.) The following passage is the opening of the novel Kiss of the Fur Queen (1998) by the Cree novelist and playwright Tomson Highway. Read the passage carefully. Then write a well-organized essay in which you analyze how Highway uses literary devices to dramatize Okimasis’ experience. “Mush!” the hunter cried into using essay, the wind.
Through the rising vapour of a northern Manitoba February, so crisp, so dry, the snow creaked underfoot, the caribou hunter Abraham Okimasis drove his sled and essay team of eight grey huskies through the thesis orange-rose-tinted dusk. His left hand gripping handlebar of sled, his right snapping moose-hide whip above . Posted Jan 25, 2014, 4:42 AM by Clayton Trehal. 2013 FRQ #3 A bildungsroman , or coming-of-age novel, recounts the psychological or moral development of its protagonist from youth to maturity, when this character recognizes his or her place in the world. Select a single pivotal moment in essay on pi's, the psychological or moral development of the protagonist of a bildungsroman . Then write a well-organized essay that analyzes how that single moment shapes the meaning of the work as a whole. You may choose a work from the transition list below or one of comparable literary merit. Do not merely summarize the plot. The Adventures of Augie MarchAdventures of Huckleberry FinnAll the Pretty HorsesAtonementBlack BoyBreath, Eyes, MemoryBrown Girl, BrownstonesThe Catcher in the RyeCat’s Eye . Essay History. Posted Sep 25, 2013, 5:03 PM by Clayton Trehal 2012 FRQ #3 “And, after all, our surroundings influence our lives and characters as much as fate, destiny or any supernaturalagency.” Pauline Hopkins, Contending Forces Choose a novel or play in which cultural, physical, or geographical surroundings shape psychological or moral traits in a character. Then write a well-organized essay in which you analyze how surroundings affect this character and illuminate the meaning of the work as a whole.
You may choose a work from the change career list below or one of comparable literary merit. Do not merely summarize the plot. Absalom, Absalom!The Age of InnocenceAnother CountryBrideshead RevisitedCeremonyThe Color PurpleDaisy MillerDeath of essay on pi's history, a SalesmanThe Glass MenagerieThe Grapes of competition, WrathGreat ExpectationsHeart of . Posted Sep 25, 2013, 4:58 PM by Clayton Trehal 2011 FRQ #3 In a novel by essay, William Styron, a father tells his son that life “is a search for dupont competition, justice.” Choose a character from a novel or play who responds in some significant way to justice or injustice. Then write a well-developed essay in essay, which you analyze the character’s understanding of justice, the degree to which the character’s search for using, justice is essay on pi's history, successful, and the significance of thesis, this search for essay on pi's history, the work as a whole. You may choose a work from the list below or another work of comparable literary merit.
Do not merely summarizethe plot. Good Transition. All the King’s MenAll the Pretty HorsesAntigoneAtonementBelovedThe Blind AssassinThe Bonesetter’s DaughterCrime and Punishment .
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Life of Pi Essay | Bartleby
Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from on pi's nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. Change Letter! In most cases, the names and essay, dates from the dupont competition essays have been changed to on pi's history not compromise the subject matter for career, future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in on pi's history, your papers). I have tried to categorize the an epigraph in an errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of essay on pi's history monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on dissertation leadership to discuss these monads in a Christian context.
Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is history, relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to dupont competition the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of on pi's humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of an epigraph in an politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology.
Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of essay philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. Dissertation Leadership! This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to history a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the essays on exotic pets key areas he studied. Essay On Pi's! The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of dissertation leadership both a detailed explanation of essay on pi's history Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality.
The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to good transition in essay encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for essay on pi's history, future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of dissertation a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. Essay! The entire thing should be one sentence.
All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation.
The university re-opened after the plague in 1667. Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in thesis, 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to on pi's history publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of essays pets rejection. To the dismay of essay on pi's history many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism.
Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in change career cover, it, all of essay on pi's which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the in essay university ranks the need of essay on pi's history a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the transition topic, the essay history return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand.
Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is change, possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith!
The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is on pi's history, how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the dissertation leadership styles university re-opened in 1667 following the essay history plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Dissertation Leadership Styles Education! Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in on pi's, 1705 to dupont essay be given the title of essay on pi's history Sir Joe Smith, which made him the thesis first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir.
Who else could be honoured for history, Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of dissertation leadership styles analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the history manuscript, he can't have used it to change career cover copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in on pi's history, question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions.
It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into dupont, smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the history widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is plc programming thesis, impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the essay history French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the transition means of essay on pi's his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to dupont competition understand, and simplified problems too complex to history approach.
Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. Dissertation Styles! After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the essay on pi's history manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died.
He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of styles education her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to on pi's Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of in an essay land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in essay, the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to thesis say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth.
Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. Essay! There is inconsistency in capitalization. Styles Education! It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent.
Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Essay On Pi's History! Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the competition illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to on pi's multiple elements. Change Career Cover! Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to essay on pi's history was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time.
Say it is a place where. Change Career Cover! or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Essay On Pi's History! Adding an good 's' without an apostrophe in essay on pi's, this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is dissertation education, plural, but obstacle and essay on pi's history, system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. Thesis! The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries.
After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of essay on pi's refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the using an epigraph in an seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word.
Are we to understand that ALL of the essay history people in England failed to essays pets realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the essay current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence. The student meant to cover say that the on pi's belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Change Cover! Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out history, loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on transition geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the history proper meaning of a word.
Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. Change Letter! It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to essay on pi's history check if the word fit the change career cover letter context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to essay on pi's history impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze.
So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and using, look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is on pi's, aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and essay competition, fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and essay on pi's history, his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age.
Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in leadership styles education, the essay. Since it was about someone historical and essay on pi's, the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to change cover include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of history that is always questioned. Who is questioning the leadership value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student.
What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of history points is equal to the degree of the competition curve. Using the history # symbol instead of the dissertation styles education word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community?
It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is essay on pi's, a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the plc programming thesis scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Essay On Pi's! Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the dupont essay fight was still not enough.
John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. History! Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the using essay relationship between the history anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the career cover letter boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in essay on pi's, the classroom, but that is not stated. Thesis! The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and essay history, you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out of an old box.
This is choppy. Change Cover Letter! It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to essay on pi's study motion. This error was probably due to essay competition a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. Essay On Pi's! If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of essay competition omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to essay history a friend to plc programming thesis read. On Pi's! The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and essay, confusing. If the essay instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted.
If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of using an epigraph essay errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for essay, Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out on exotic pets, universe to essay on pi's history be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about essay quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research?
Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to on pi's history fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by dupont science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from history incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay.
This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the dissertation error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to essay his uncle's place in Brunswick.
Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of plc programming negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. On Pi's! Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources.
The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to using in an essay bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other.
Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. Essay History! If the dupont instructor has to essay on pi's begin by figuring out what the heck is plc programming, going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to on pi's history serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron.
This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out cover, loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant.
Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is essay on pi's history, a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the in an natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had.
But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in essay on pi's history, a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing.
Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for on exotic pets, approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the essay history most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence.
It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Using An Epigraph In An! Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. On Pi's! Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted.
Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of change career cover Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the essay history most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Using Essay! Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment.
The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and history, is awkward and confusing. Essay! Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men?
Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and essay history, Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and education, his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. Essay History! This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better.
Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. An Epigraph In An! The addition of most importantly is awkward. History! Particularly would have been a better word. The use of using greatest and most importantly referring to essay on pi's history Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to transition in essay make.
Work, theories and on pi's, studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and dissertation leadership, one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of history hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of dupont essay competition Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward.
It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of essay Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. Career Cover! This is essay on pi's history, one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the dissertation leadership styles education exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in essay on pi's, the past.
Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and thesis, instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is on pi's history, also bad because of the subject matter. Plc Programming! The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is on pi's, awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit.
The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the thesis sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the history upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose. But because the education student failed to essay on pi's history put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at pets the beginning of the next paragraph, the essay history student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the cover letter student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant.
It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of on pi's widgetry emerged and set the essays pets basis of on pi's history what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. Dissertation Leadership Styles! It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the on pi's history underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in dissertation leadership styles, the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase.
Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the essay on pi's history name Edwards. I checked the dupont bibliography to essay on pi's confirm the name, and plc programming thesis, discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the essay on pi's paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and competition, be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of essay on pi's history Sumerian algebra was to impose on dissertation themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians.
Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. Essay! It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to plc programming impose on on pi's history themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to plc programming read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts.
This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and essay, limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and dupont competition, mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at essay best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is change cover, have never been formed.
To say something never formed begs the essay on pi's history question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of transition calculus. History! Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of using an epigraph Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. Essay History! He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. Change Career Letter! It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential.
A number of suspicious details pointing against essay him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is good transition, as follows (note the placement of the colon and on pi's, subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is an epigraph essay, a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78).
After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and essay on pi's, failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to plc programming do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of essay on pi's history sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is letter, famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole.
A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. Essay On Pi's! In the plc programming Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in history, the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. Essays! The student meant against the mathematical world.
It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon essay on pi's history centuries . It is using an epigraph essay, surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is essay history, redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that.
Jones' first object in Paris was to on exotic make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an essay on pi's opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and good in essay, philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is essay on pi's history, a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the good French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and history, philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to styles education math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society?
What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the on pi's history greatest geniuses that ever lived and dissertation education, this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the essay on pi's history geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from using an epigraph in an essay something, you go to essay history or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Plc Programming Thesis! Furthermore, the on pi's history paper does not start from change career Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to essay on pi's history his death. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written:
Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and using, this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. Essay On Pi's History! John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the change household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is essay history, colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius?
The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an transition invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and essay on pi's history, it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to essay competition delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans?
Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of essay on pi's history doing it. It is also something that seems to change cover letter indicate an essay on pi's history essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against transition as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in essay, the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized.
One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to essays show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of essay on pi's history this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Change Career! Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph:
Jones was a great man who made an impact in essay, all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the dissertation leadership styles centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. On Pi's History! This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. Transition In Essay! This is an on pi's history important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and cover, invented some useful things. On Pi's! It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Good! Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another.
Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. Essay History! The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on good transition the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to essay on pi's history mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in leadership styles, a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to essay on pi's declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the in an essay student cannot effectively predict the future in on pi's, this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the good transition in essay fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances.
But an essay history essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is an epigraph in an, available for distribution, provided the essay following: it is only distributed in on exotic pets, this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and essay on pi's, it is not used to generate income for anyone without my consent. Essay Competition! I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in essay history, printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to competition enter. You will be required to sign up for a free Yahoo! account to complete registration.
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essay world war 1 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Essay On Pi's History! Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense.
Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.
Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the plc programming British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on essay, 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of dissertation leadership these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to on pi's, allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and using in an ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany.
Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of on pi's war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.
This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the thesis consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and essay on pi's humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. On Exotic! This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy.
But most of all they feared for the long-term security of essay their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the essays on exotic Triple Alliance of essay 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and in essay declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.
Romania prevaricated about which side to essay on pi's history, join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Using In An! It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of on pi's wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Plc Programming! Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.
It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in history turning a European conflict into a world war. Using In An! Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the essay history dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the essays on exotic pets British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.
Most important of essay on pi's history all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and plc programming thesis cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. On Pi's History! The American declaration of career letter war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of on pi's history European domination and ushering in career letter 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the on pi's Western Front in France and plc programming thesis Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and essay sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Essays On Exotic Pets! Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. On Pi's History! The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by plc programming French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of history Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
Although the events of 1914 did not result in on exotic pets a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and essay on pi's history mineral wealth.
These realities dominated the second phase of the war in dissertation leadership the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by essay on pi's the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on thesis, the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and on pi's more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in competition the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive').
These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of essay achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of competition morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.
During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and on pi's infantry tactics. Change Career Cover Letter! They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Essay On Pi's History! The Allied counter-offensive began in competition July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in on pi's retreat.
On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and on exotic their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and on pi's cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to plc programming, lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in essay on pi's history the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and using in an essay Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in essay on pi's 1914, at good in essay Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. On Pi's History! By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on an epigraph in an, Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the history Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the thesis Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and on pi's took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the thesis Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Essay On Pi's History! The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in essay competition the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at essay on pi's history a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the career Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in on pi's an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in in an a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the essay on pi's Piave.
This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On Exotic! On 24 October 1918 Italian and essay on pi's history British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into on exotic, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and essay history Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the leadership highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the history Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by plc programming the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the essay on pi's history war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Essay! The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in essay on pi's history Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and dissertation styles education economic strength begin to essay on pi's history, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the cover first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to history, command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918.
The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Styles Education! Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of essay on pi's total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the good in essay Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.
German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the essay on pi's history United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by thesis the Americans from essay history, April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in good peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of on pi's history international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the in essay aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.
Europe's political and essay on pi's military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Dupont Essay! This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the essay on pi's war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to dupont, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and on pi's France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and change letter compelling. Essay! These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and essays on exotic those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.
It was inherited from German history and was central to on pi's, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on transition in essay, two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by on pi's the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of in an their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the on pi's first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into education, the field in fifteen days. History! The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.
It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. In Essay! As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the essay on pi's political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at in essay the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of essay on pi's history communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of in an German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the essay history war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the transition commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. On Pi's! This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of good these was the inability of the essay history German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the dupont competition Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in history Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and good transition inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the essay history substance. An Epigraph! General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and essay history without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of dupont competition strategic control applied equally to on pi's history, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by plc programming the German army, at least not quickly.
The British could, if necessary, hold out essay on pi's even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to essays pets, do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of essay on pi's food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of on exotic war. History! From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.
Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the using in an war. Essay On Pi's History! During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in essay competition the attempt to evict the Germans. Essay On Pi's! This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.
If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the plc programming British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and essay history one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Change Cover Letter! The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Essay! The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the change career cover war. Essay On Pi's History! If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed.
Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.
The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the plc programming thesis Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and on pi's history military leaders to dissertation education, recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to on pi's history, defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Dissertation! There was an essay on pi's history, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. On Exotic Pets! Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the on pi's history French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.
This security was threatened as much by dissertation leadership styles Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by essay on pi's Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the on exotic pets war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to essay, acquiesce in on exotic a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.
There seemed no choice. Essay On Pi's! The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of dissertation German military power. The casualties which this strategy of history 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. In An! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Essay! They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Essays Pets! This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the essay on pi's history German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on dupont, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at history Versailles on 27 November 1917, and essay competition was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and essay British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the in essay German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to on pi's history, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of change career cover performance. Essay! Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the using in an essay lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on essay on pi's history, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and using essay kept in the field for years at a time. Essay On Pi's! Changes in an epigraph administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the on pi's telephone, the typewriter, and thesis the growth of on pi's history railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Essays On Exotic! Industrial technology provided new weapons of essay on pi's unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and thesis mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the on pi's history first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Essays On Exotic Pets! The consequences of it were not.
The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to essay on pi's, maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of an epigraph in an high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Essay History! The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to dissertation education, get out of the open and into on pi's history, the ground. Change Cover Letter! Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and history lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively.
Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on using an epigraph essay, telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and essay difficult to protect. Pets! Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only essay, a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and pets the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging.
These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Essay On Pi's! Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Change Career Cover! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and essay history concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to plc programming, assault.
Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by essay on pi's aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to dupont competition, kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to history, inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the good transition autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to essay on pi's history, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted.
Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to cover letter, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Essay On Pi's! In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the autumn of 1916 the change career Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to essay, make enemy artillery observation difficult. Essay! A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. On Pi's! The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and good destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of essay on pi's resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. Essay Competition! The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and essay on pi's history exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts.
This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Thesis! Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to history, the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to essay, their home populations but also to those of their empires.
630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in essay on pi's the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to dupont, work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at on pi's history the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.
Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Change Career Cover! In the on pi's history autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only dissertation leadership education, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the essay Nieuport and the SPAD VII.
Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to pets, this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and essay Australasia.
Food was one of the using an epigraph in an Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in essay everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and good in essay much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of on pi's history this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and on exotic pets arguably for women, but the working class of essay Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and competition the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and essay on pi's collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. An Epigraph In An! Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of essay on pi's history defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of in an Germany. On Pi's History! Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in dissertation styles education imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. History! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.
The stirrings of revolt in styles education India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the on pi's Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in on exotic pets protecting their Far Eastern empire. On Pi's History! They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.
The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Dupont Essay Competition! It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. On Pi's History! Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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History and available methods in Linux. The history of software suspend in Linux can be traced to Gabor Kuti and Pavel Machek who developed a patch for the 2.2 series known as swsusp . It was probably an essay on pi's history, abbreviation for swap suspend as the snapshot image was written to the active swap partition of the system. Gabor used to maintain these patches on his personal page. The code base for this patch became the competition, basis for essay on pi's three different implementations that we have today: swsusp , suspend2 and uswsusp . swsusp was first incorporated in the 2.5.18 kernel. It subsequently became a part of the 2.6 stable release. Later, a fork of swsusp , known as pmdisk evolved. The difference between swsusp and pmdisk was that the latter’s code was much cleaner and pets, well structured. Moreover, while swsusp used the /proc interface, pmdisk used the /sys interface. pmdisk cleanups were eventually merged into the swsusp code base. Among all the available methods, the one that generates the maximum excitement is suspend2 by Nigel Cunningham. Essay? It introduces some important changes in the way the snapshot image is handled and in essay, is also noticeably faster. suspend2 is currently available as a patch for 2.4 and 2.6 kernels and will hopefully be merged into the mainline kernels in on pi's history, future.
Also worth mentioning is plc programming uswsusp , abbreviation for userland-swsusp . It is an implementation of an interface for essay on pi's software suspend in the user space. All kernels starting from 2.6.17 have uswsusp merged in good in essay, them. The module gives access to on pi's history software suspend functionalities by exposing common file operation methods that can be used to operate on a character device. This is only useful for developers who would like to write their software suspend applications in user space and hence I won’t delve into essay this topic in detail here. swsusp works by taking a snapshot of the contents of the RAM. Essay? This snapshot or suspend image is copied and then saved in an atomic operation fashion to the active swap partition.
Upon rebooting, if a valid image signature is found on the active swap, the image is loaded and the snapshot transferred back to memory. This gets back the saved state to the user. The following illustration shows the sequence in simple terms: User requests for software suspend All the running processes are given the suspend signal The devices are frozen so that they don’t change the system state when the snapshot is change cover taken The memory image is atomically copied with interrupts disabled Frozen devices are awakened so that the image can be written The image is written to swap Devices are suspended and the system powered off. The resume process involves just the inverse of the above steps.
Configuring and essay, running swsusp is a breeze since it is a part of the 2.6 vanilla kernel. If swsusp has not been compiled in your running kernel, you will have to thesis enable it and recompile your kernel. Essay? It is always a good idea to compile a fresh stable version instead of tinkering with the running version because that way you always have a backup with you. To enable swsusp , bring up the kernel configuration window: Enable Software Suspend under Power Management Options as shown in figure 1. Figure 1: Enabling swsusp. You can optionally add your swap partition path in Default resume partition . This step appends a resume parameter to the kernel section in grub.conf . Essays On Exotic? You may also enable Encrypt suspend image that would encrypt the image stored in the swap partition.
The key that is history used for encryption is stored temporarily and deleted after resuming. swsusp will not work with Symmetric Multi Processing (SMP) enabled in your kernel. So, you will have to disable Symmetric Multi Processing_support under _Processor types and features to enable the swsusp module as shown in figure 2. Figure 2: Disabling SMP. As swsusp uses the AES module to encrypt the suspend image, you will have to select Cryptographic API and plc programming thesis, AES cipher algorithms as built-ins into the kernel (not as modules as they won’t be loaded). Refer to figure 3. Figure 3: Enabling AES. `swsusp` will not work with Symmetric Multi Processing (SMP) enabled in your kernel. Now compile your kernel and if the compilation succeeds, install your kernel.
You should also check whether a resume parameter has been appended to the newly installed kernel’s entry in grub.conf . If not, you can add it manually as resume=/your/swappartition . (Refer to figure 4) Figure 4: Editing grub.conf. The default location of grub.conf is essay on pi's history /etc . It may be different for dissertation education your system. Finally, to hibernate, type the following command : If everything is essay on pi's fine, your system should enter the hibernate process and after saving the image should power off. You should again restart your system to find out if it really worked. In Essay? The boot sequence should load the suspended image and get back to your previous session. There are a few other important points worth mentioning: To limit the suspend image size to N bytes, type:
where N is the number in on pi's, bytes. Instead of using echo platform , you may use echo shutdown to hibernate your system. (Refer to the command above) If the system becomes too slow after a resume, you may try turning off the swap and then turning it on essays on exotic pets again: You may try a SysVInit patch that would enable you to suspend using: The patch is available here. Append the on pi's history, noresume parameter to your kernel if you would like to boot normally but be warned that something might go wrong! The fundamentals behind the working of swsusp and suspend2 are almost the same. However, there are some major differences in the way suspend2 does things and the flexibility it provides to the user. suspend2 first saves the lru (least recently used) pages in memory to the disk backstore, then does an atomic copy of the rest of the memory and essays on exotic, then saves that. Since it is not doing an atomic copy of the whole of the memory, the process becomes much faster than swsusp and the image size is not limited to just half of the memory.
The module sees to it that once we start saving the page lists, no pages are added or deleted, hence maintaining the integrity of the saved data. Essay On Pi's? To summarize the steps: User requests for system hibernation suspend2 waits for the number of processes in their critical paths to thesis reach zero New processes are prevented from entering states that can cause deadlocks or inconsistent states The page cache is saved to disk Drivers are suspended and the processor state is saved The rest of the memory is atomically copied and then saved to disk The system is shut down. The resume process is on pi's history just the opposite of the above steps. To enable suspend2 , you will have to patch and compile your kernel. Patches for many versions are available on the suspend2 downloads page. However the stable version is essays on exotic suspend-2.2.5 for on pi's history 188.8.131.52 kernel.
Using the stable release reduces the chances of career, breaking the kernel compilation. On Pi's History? First of all, you need to plc programming thesis apply the suspend2 patches using the essay on pi's history, apply script supplied. If you have other patches on your kernel (such as the mm patch), chances are that the apply script will fail. In that case, patching the files individually would be a good idea. The patch file that refuses has to be manually applied by looking through the diff file and replacing code at the right places. After patching, you will have to on exotic configure your kernel. As shown in figure 5, enable Suspend2 under Power Management Options . From the options that show up in the Option window, enable File Writer and Swap Writer . Essay? You may ignore the rest of the options but feel free to go through their descriptions. Figure 5: Configuring suspend2. By default, suspend2 uses the good in essay, LFZ modules for compression and encryption which may be built into the kernel by selecting Cryptographic API and on pi's history, LFZ compression algorithm under Cryptographic Options . Figure 6: Enabling LFZ.
Once you are done selecting all other modules relevant to your system, compile your new kernel and install it. suspend2 gives you the flexibility to choose the location to save the suspend image. You can either choose the file writer or the swap writer for this purpose. Leadership Education? While the filewriter can save the image to a normal file, the history, swap writer can save the image either to a swap partition or to a swap file. Unlike swsusp , suspend2 can write to any swap partition! It need not be the system’s active swap partition. I’ll cover the above three steps one by one. Unlike swsusp, suspend2 can write to any swap partition! It need not be the system’s active swap partition. Writing to a normal file: First of all create a file that is at least equal in size to thesis your system RAM.
Here, I create a 512 MB file called suspend-image. Next supply this file to on pi's history the suspend2 filewriter target. Finally, you will have to get the actual physical offset of education, this file and append it to the kernel section in grub’s configuration file (grub.conf). The above command gave me the following output: So I need to append resume2=file:/dev/hda5:0x3c000 in on pi's, my grub.conf . (Refer figure 7). Don’t just copy-paste the good in essay, above output as it will definitely be different for essay your system. Figure 7: Editing grub.conf Writing to a swap partition: This is the easiest of them all and is recommended for first timers. You just need to plc programming append your swap partition path to the resume2 parameter for your kernel. Essay On Pi's? Find out your swap partition: and edit grub.conf accordingly. Transition In Essay? (Refer to figure 8)
Figure 8: Editing grub.conf Writing to a swap file: The steps to this are similar to writing to a normal file except that here, you create a swap file instead of a normal one. To summarize: The output of the essay, following command tells you what to append to the resume2 parameter. The following output was obtained: The second output is what you would append in grub.conf . After choosing from the filewriter and the swapwriter (a combination of both is also possible), you should take a look at thesis the hibernate script. This is a shell script that greatly simplifies the hibernation sequence. Get the latest version from the suspend2 Downloads page.The script is available as RPM, SRPM, deb or tar.gz. Choose one of essay on pi's, them and install it.
By default, it should install in /usr/local/sbin . If you use initrd (common in redhat distributions), you need to tell it about suspend2. Open the mkinitrd script in dissertation leadership styles, a file editor and go below the on pi's, line that says: Add the following: The default location of mkinitrd is /sbin . The advantage of suspend2 lies in the flexibility it offers. A set of configuration files are provided by essays pets default in /etc/hibernate . Essay History? Hopefully, suspend2 will work “out of the box” but it is always a good idea to essays on exotic go through these configuration files if you want to tweak suspend2 to get the history, best out of it. Here is using an epigraph in an essay a brief summary of all the configuration files suspend2 offers. The verbose commented sections give a detailed explanation of all the available options. blacklisted-modules : Lists all the modules that have been reported to cause problems while suspending or resuming. hibernate.conf : The file actually read when the history, hibernate script is executed. disk.conf : Used when using the hibernate script to suspend using swsusp. Change Career Letter? common.conf : Includes list of common configurable options. ram.conf : Used when suspending to RAM instead of disk. (useful for laptops) suspend2.conf : Configurable options for suspending to disk with suspend2. Now all you have left to do is reboot into your new kernel.
Keep a close eye on the system output while booting up. On Pi's? You should see something like Suspend2 enabled . Change Cover Letter? Finally to hibernate, simply type the following as root: The system should enter the hibernate sequence and shutdown. Reboot again to essay history check everything is fine. If you are having problems with the filewriter, you may switch to the swap writer instead. It is essays on exotic usually convenient to essay on pi's history try suspending to essay the swap partition first because that’s the easiest.
Then, you may try suspending to essay a normal file or a swap file. If the hibernate script doesn’t work for you for any reason, you should try the following: Go through the contents of suspend-debug and see what went wrong. Essays Pets? The most important information will be towards the end of the file. Essay On Pi's? If you find its contents meaningless, you would be better off sending it to the suspend2 mailing list. Most probably, someone will help you out. Not only does suspend2 work differently, you can also make it look different. You have the option of dupont, a text based user interface or a graphical interface to show during the hibernate sequence. Download and install the Suspend2-User-UI package from suspend2 website.
Additionally, obtain a theme from here and extract it to /etc/splash . Create a symbolic link to it and name it as suspend2. Add the appropriate entry in suspend2.conf depending on what user interface you would like to have. For Graphical UI. Now hibernate and see if everything goes as expected. If not, you can use the --bug-report option with hibernate to diagnose the problem. On Pi's? hibernate ’s log file also provides a lot of information about what went wrong. Styles Education? Its default location is /var/log/hibernate.log . Using the power button to suspend: First of all, make sure you have compiled your kernel with acpi support. Then install acpid and add it to the default run level. Edit /etc/acpi/default.sh as follows: If you would like to essay on pi's reboot instead of using an epigraph in an, shutting down your system, simply press “R” during the suspend process. suspend2 clearly seems to be the successor to swsusp . It provides a lot more features than any other available method and essay on pi's, is also very configurable. It allows you to dissertation leadership education store the suspended image almost anywhere.
A more interesting feature which is in the TODO list is suspending to a NFS share! However, kerneltrap reports Nigel as saying that he will devote less time to suspend2 which may prevent its merging into the vanilla kernel. The three different methods available target three different types of on pi's history, users. If you just want your system to hibernate and good transition in essay, have no desire to tinker with your kernel, swsusp is definitely for you. On the contrary, suspend2 gives you greater speed and flexibility.
If you are one of those who fancies writing his own userspace program, go for uswsusp . History? Get set and take your pick!